Astrophys. J., 781, 101 (2014/February-1)
Herschel-SPIRE Fourier transform spectrometer observations of excited CO and [C i] in the antennae (NGC 4038/39): warm and cold molecular gas.
SCHIRM M.R.P., WILSON C.D., PARKIN T.J., KAMENETZKY J., GLENN J., RANGWALA N., SPINOGLIO L., PEREIRA-SANTAELLA M., BAES M., BARLOW M.J., CLEMENTS D.L., COORAY A., DE LOOZE I., KARCZEWSKI O.L., MADDEN S.C., REMY-RUYER A. and WU R.
Abstract (from CDS):
We present Herschel Spectral and Photometric Imaging Receiver (SPIRE) Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) observations of the Antennae (NGC 4038/39), a well-studied, nearby (22 Mpc), ongoing merger between two gas-rich spiral galaxies. The SPIRE-FTS is a low spatial ( FWHM ∼ 19''-43'') and spectral (∼1.2 GHz) resolution mapping spectrometer covering a large spectral range (194-671 µm, 450-1545 GHz). We detect five CO transitions (J = 4-3 to J = 8-7), both [C I] transitions, and the [N II] 205 µm transition across the entire system, which we supplement with ground-based observations of the CO J = 1-0, J = 2-1, and J = 3-2 transitions and Herschel Photodetecting Array Camera and Spectrometer (PACS) observations of [C II] and [O I] 63 µm. Using the CO and [C I] transitions, we perform both a local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) analysis of [C I] and a non-LTE radiative transfer analysis of CO and [C I] using the radiative transfer code RADEX along with a Bayesian likelihood analysis. We find that there are two components to the molecular gas: a cold (Tkin∼ 10-30 K) and a warm (Tkin ≳ 100 K) component. By comparing the warm gas mass to previously observed values, we determine a CO abundance in the warm gas of xCO∼ 5x10–5. If the CO abundance is the same in the warm and cold gas phases, this abundance corresponds to a CO J = 1-0 luminosity-to-mass conversion factor of αCO∼ 7 M☉/pc2 (K km/s)–1 in the cold component, similar to the value for normal spiral galaxies. We estimate the cooling from H2, [C II], CO, and [O I] 63 µm to be ∼0.01 L☉/M☉. We compare photon-dominated region models to the ratio of the flux of various CO transitions, along with the ratio of the CO flux to the far-infrared flux in NGC 4038, NGC 4039, and the overlap region. We find that the densities recovered from our non-LTE analysis are consistent with a background far-ultraviolet field of strength G0∼ 1000. Finally, we find that a combination of turbulent heating, due to the ongoing merger, and supernova and stellar winds are sufficient to heat the molecular gas.
galaxies: individual (NGC 4038, NGC 4039) - galaxies: interactions - infrared: galaxies - ISM: molecules - submillimeter: galaxies
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