The L1157-B1 astrochemical laboratory: measuring the true formaldehyde deuteration on grain mantles.
FONTANI F., CODELLA C., CECCARELLI C., LEFLOCH B., VITI S. and BENEDETTINI M.
Abstract (from CDS):
L1157 is a prototypical chemically active outflow driven by a low-mass class-0 protostar, and B1 is its brightest bow shock. Toward L1157-B1, several emission lines of deuterated molecules have been detected for the first time by Codella et al. The authors suggested that these were formed on grain mantles, and then released into the gas phase by the passage of the shock. In this Letter we report observations obtained at high angular resolution with the Plateau de Bure Interferometer of HDCO and CH2DOH. The emission of HDCO perfectly delineates the region of the interface between the fast jet and the slower ambient material, confirming the predictions of the previous work that deuterated species were formed on grain mantles and then released into the gas phase by the passage of the shock. CH2 DOH emission is fainter and thus its emitting region is not well determined. The deuterated fraction HDCO/H2CO is ∼0.1 in the HDCO emitting region, an order of magnitude larger than the upper limit found in the surrounding material, probably dominated by warm-gas chemistry and less affected by grain evaporation. Our study represents the first clear evidence ever found of a deuterated molecule as shock tracer, and yields an indirect but "clean" measurement of the deuteration of the ices covering the dust grains during the cold pre-protostellar phase.