2014ApJ...795..156W


C.D.S. - SIMBAD4 rel 1.7 - 2021.04.16CEST11:33:19

2014ApJ...795..156W - Astrophys. J., 795, 156 (2014/November-2)

ALMA observations of the antennae galaxies. I. A new window on a prototypical merger.

WHITMORE B.C., BROGAN C., CHANDAR R., EVANS A., HIBBARD J., JOHNSON K., LEROY A., PRIVON G., REMIJAN A. and SHETH K.

Abstract (from CDS):

We present the highest spatial resolution (~0.''5) CO (3-2) observations to date of the "overlap" region in the merging Antennae galaxies (NGC 4038/39), taken with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array. We report on the discovery of a long (3 kpc), thin (aspect ratio 30/1), filament of CO gas that breaks up into roughly 10 individual knots. Each individual knot has a low internal velocity dispersion (~10 km/s); the dispersion of the ensemble of knots in the filament is also low (~10 km/s). At the other extreme, we find that the individual clouds in the supergiant molecular cloud 2 region discussed by Wilson and collaborators have a large range of internal velocity dispersions (10 to 80 km/s), and a large dispersion among the ensemble (~80 km/s). Other large-scale features observed in CO emission, and their correspondence with historical counterparts using observations in other wavelengths, are also discussed. We compare the locations of small-scale CO features with a variety of multi-wavelength observations, in particular broad- (BVIJH) and narrow-band data (Hα and Paβ) taken with the Hubble Space Telescope, and radio (3.6 cm) continuum observations taken with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array. This comparison leads to the development of an evolutionary classification system that provides a framework for studying the sequence of star cluster formation and evolution–from diffuse supergiant molecular clouds (SGMCs) to proto, embedded, emerging, young, intermediate/old clusters. The relative timescales have been assessed by determining the fractional population of sources at each evolutionary stage. The main uncertainty in this estimate is the identification of four regions as candidate protoclusters (i.e., strong compact CO emission but no clearly associated radio emission). Using the evolutionary framework, we estimate that the maximum age range of clusters in a single GMC is ~10 Myr, which suggests that the molecular gas is removed over this timescale, resulting in the cessation of star formation and the destruction of the GMC within a radius of about 200 pc.

Abstract Copyright:

Journal keyword(s): galaxies: individual: (Antennae, NGC 4038,sol - 39) - galaxies: star clusters: general - stars: formation

Nomenclature: Table 1: [WBC2014] DDD.ddddd+DD.ddddd N=26.

Simbad objects: 39

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Number of rows : 39

N Identifier Otype ICRS (J2000)
RA
ICRS (J2000)
DEC
Mag U Mag B Mag V Mag R Mag I Sp type #ref
1850 - 2021
#notes
1 M 33 GiG 01 33 50.904 +30 39 35.79 6.17 6.27 5.72     ~ 5279 1
2 NAME LMC G 05 23 34.6 -69 45 22     0.4     ~ 15290 1
3 M 42 HII 05 35 17.3 -05 23 28           ~ 3787 0
4 RMC 136 Cl* 05 38 42.396 -69 06 03.36           ~ 1785 1
5 LHA 120-N 159 HII 05 39 46.650 -69 45 39.94           ~ 254 2
6 QSO B1156-221 QSO 11 59 11.2675871857 -22 28 36.897914877   18.6 19.5 19.4   ~ 55 1
7 NGC 4038 GiP 12 01 53.002 -18 52 03.32   10.91   9.74 11.0 ~ 1287 1
8 NAME Antennae IG 12 01 53.170 -18 52 37.92           ~ 1581 0
9 NGC 4039 GiP 12 01 53.8 -18 53 06   11.08   9.77   ~ 1137 1
10 [WBC2014] 180.47754-18.88420 MoC 12 01 54.61 -18 53 03.1           ~ 1 0
11 [WBC2014] 180.47807-18.88143 MoC 12 01 54.74 -18 52 53.1           ~ 1 0
12 [WBC2014] 180.47820-18.88087 MoC 12 01 54.77 -18 52 51.1           ~ 1 0
13 [WBC2014] 180.47858-18.87320 MoC 12 01 54.86 -18 52 23.5           ~ 1 0
14 [WBC2014] 180.47865-18.87382 MoC 12 01 54.88 -18 52 25.8           ~ 1 0
15 [WBC2014] 180.47867-18.88107 MoC 12 01 54.88 -18 52 51.9           ~ 1 0
16 [WBC2014] 180.47868-18.88510 MoC 12 01 54.88 -18 53 06.4           ~ 1 0
17 [WBC2014] 180.47870-18.88333 MoC 12 01 54.89 -18 53 00.0           ~ 1 0
18 [WBC2014] 180.47878-18.88130 MoC 12 01 54.91 -18 52 52.7           ~ 1 0
19 [WBC2014] 180.47887-18.87538 MoC 12 01 54.93 -18 52 31.4           ~ 1 0
20 [WBC2014] 180.47894-18.87476 MoC 12 01 54.95 -18 52 29.1           ~ 1 0
21 [WBC2014] 180.47896-18.87595 MoC 12 01 54.95 -18 52 33.4           ~ 1 0
22 [WBC2014] 180.47914-18.88492 MoC 12 01 54.99 -18 53 05.7           ~ 1 0
23 [WBC2014] 180.47932-18.88356 MoC 12 01 55.04 -18 53 00.8           ~ 1 0
24 [WBC2014] 180.47946-18.87762 MoC 12 01 55.07 -18 52 39.4           ~ 1 0
25 [WBC2014] 180.47977-18.87718 MoC 12 01 55.14 -18 52 37.8           ~ 1 0
26 [WBC2014] 180.47990-18.87798 MoC 12 01 55.18 -18 52 40.7           ~ 1 0
27 [WBC2014] 180.48032-18.88010 MoC 12 01 55.28 -18 52 48.4           ~ 1 0
28 [WBC2014] 180.48035-18.88067 MoC 12 01 55.28 -18 52 50.4           ~ 1 0
29 [WBC2014] 180.48062-18.88025 MoC 12 01 55.35 -18 52 48.9           ~ 1 0
30 [WBC2014] 180.48077-18.87997 MoC 12 01 55.38 -18 52 47.9           ~ 1 0
31 [WBC2014] 180.48140-18.87930 MoC 12 01 55.54 -18 52 45.5           ~ 1 0
32 [WBC2014] 180.48264-18.87538 MoC 12 01 55.83 -18 52 31.4           ~ 1 0
33 [WBC2014] 180.48337-18.87582 MoC 12 01 56.01 -18 52 33.0           ~ 1 0
34 [WBC2014] 180.48352-18.87643 MoC 12 01 56.04 -18 52 35.1           ~ 1 0
35 [WBC2014] 180.48413-18.87724 MoC 12 01 56.19 -18 52 38.1           ~ 1 0
36 QSO B1213-172 QSO 12 15 46.75176110 -17 31 45.4029502     21.4 17.50   ~ 129 1
37 M 83 SBG 13 37 00.919 -29 51 56.74 8.85 8.11 7.52 7.21   ~ 2297 2
38 NAME the Pipe Nebula DNe 17 30 -25.0           ~ 351 1
39 NAME CFA Great Wall SCG ~ ~           ~ 121 0

    Equat.    Gal    SGal    Ecl

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2021.04.16-11:33:19

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