Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc., 441, 2613-2643 (2014/July-1)
Warm absorbers in X-rays (WAX), a comprehensive high-resolution grating spectral study of a sample of Seyfert galaxies - I. A global view and frequency of occurrence of warm absorbers.
LAHA S., GUAINAZZI M., DEWANGAN G.C., CHAKRAVORTY S. and KEMBHAVI A.K.
Abstract (from CDS):
We present results from a homogeneous analysis of the broad-band 0.3-10keV CCD resolution as well as of the soft X-ray high-resolution grating spectra of a hard X-ray flux-limited sample of 26 Seyfert galaxies observed with XMM-Newton. Our goal is to characterize warm absorbers (WAs) along the line of sight to the active nucleus. We significantly detect WAs in 65 percent of the sample sources. Our results are consistent with WAs being present in at least half of the Seyfert galaxies in the nearby Universe, in agreement with previous estimates. We find a gap in the distribution of the ionization parameter in the range 0.5 < logξ < 1.5 which we interpret as a thermally unstable region for WA clouds. This may indicate that the WA flow is probably constituted by a clumpy distribution of discrete clouds rather than a continuous medium. The distribution of the WA column densities for the sources with broad Fe Kα lines are similar to those sources which do not have broadened emission lines. Therefore, the detected broad Fe Kα emission lines are bona fide and not artefacts of ionized absorption in the soft X-rays. The WA parameters show no correlation among themselves, with the exception of the ionization parameter versus column density. The shallow slope of the logξ versus logvout linear regression (0.12±0.03) is inconsistent with the scaling laws predicted by radiation or magnetohydrodynamic-driven winds. Our results also suggest that WA and ultra fast outflows do not represent extreme manifestation of the same astrophysical system.