Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc., 445, 270-279 (2014/November-3)
The non-active stellar chromosphere: CaII basal flux.
PEREZ MARTINEZ M.I., SCHRODER K.-P. and HAUSCHILDT P.
Abstract (from CDS):
We analyse high-resolution, high-s/n European Southern Observatories (ESO)-archive spectra (from UVES, the UV echelle spectrograph) of 76 inactive or modestly active stars of spectral type G to M, main sequence and giants. Using phoenix model photospheres with Caii K lines that match the observed line profiles, we (i) revise the effective temperatures, (ii) obtain a precise surface flux scale for each star and (iii) directly determine the exact surface fluxes of each Caii K chromospheric emission with respect to the photospheric line profile. We find that our stellar sample exhibits a lower boundary to its chromospheric surface flux distribution with an unprecedented definition. From a subsample of the 25 least active stars, we obtain a simple empirical formula for the basal Caii flux as a function of effective temperature: logF^basal_Ca II(H+K) = 7.05(±0.31) logT_eff - 20.86(±1.15). This is in good agreement with the Mgii basal flux. In a direct comparison with the large body of Mt Wilson S-measurements of the chromospheric Caii emission and its well-defined cut-off, excellent agreement is achieved as well. A new result, however, is the small scatter of the least active star's fluxes about the basal flux. It is about 25 percent and equals the residual uncertainties of our approach. At the same time, we do not find any evidence for a gravity dependence within these limits. This strongly confirms the basal flux as a well-defined and universal phenomenon, which characterizes every inactive chromosphere.
© 2014 The Authors Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Royal Astronomical Society (2014)
Stars: activity - Stars: chromospheres - Stars: fundamental parameters - Stars: late-type
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