Astronomy and Astrophysics, volume 574A, 107-107 (2015/2-1)
Depletion of chlorine into HCl ice in a protostellar core. The CHESS spectral survey of OMC-2 FIR 4.
KAMA M., CAUX E., LOPEZ-SEPULCRE A., WAKELAM V., DOMINIK C., CECCARELLI C., LANZA M., LIQUE F., OCHSENDORF B.B., LIS D.C., CABALLERO R.N. and TIELENS A.G.G.M.
Abstract (from CDS):
The freezeout of gas-phase species onto cold dust grains can drastically alter the chemistry and the heating-cooling balance of protostellar material. In contrast to well-known species such as carbon monoxide (CO), the freezeout of various carriers of elements with abundances <10–5 has not yet been well studied. Our aim here is to study the depletion of chlorine in the protostellar core, OMC-2 FIR 4. We observed transitions of HCl and H2Cl+ towards OMC-2 FIR 4 using the Herschel Space Observatory and Caltech Submillimeter Observatory facilities. Our analysis makes use of state of the art chlorine gas-grain chemical models and newly calculated HCl-H2 hyperfine collisional excitation rate coefficients. A narrow emission component in the HCl lines traces the extended envelope, and a broad one traces a more compact central region. The gas-phase HCl abundance in FIR 4 is 9x10–11, a factor of only 10–3 that of volatile elemental chlorine. The H2Cl+ lines are detected in absorption and trace a tenuous foreground cloud, where we find no depletion of volatile chlorine. Gas-phase HCl is the tip of the chlorine iceberg in protostellar cores. Using a gas-grain chemical model, we show that the hydrogenation of atomic chlorine on grain surfaces in the dark cloud stage sequesters at least 90% of the volatile chlorine into HCl ice, where it remains in the protostellar stage. About 10% of chlorine is in gaseous atomic form. Gas-phase HCl is a minor, but diagnostically key reservoir, with an abundance of ≲10–10 in most of the protostellar core. We find the 35Cl/37Cl ratio in OMC-2 FIR 4 to be 3.2±0.1, consistent with the solar system value.
stars: formation - astrochemistry - ISM: abundances
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