Astrophys. J., 801, 72 (2015/March-2)
The Herschel comprehensive (U)LIRG emission survey (HERCULES): CO ladders, fine structure lines, and neutral gas cooling.
ROSENBERG M.J.F., VAN DER WERF P.P., AALTO S., ARMUS L., CHARMANDARIS V., DIAZ-SANTOS T., EVANS A.S., FISCHER J., GAO Y., GONZALEZ-ALFONSO E., GREVE T.R., HARRIS A.I., HENKEL C., ISRAEL F.P., ISAAK K.G., KRAMER C., MEIJERINK R., NAYLOR D.A., SANDERS D.B., SMITH H.A., SPAANS M., SPINOGLIO L., STACEY G.J., VEENENDAAL I., VEILLEUX S., WALTER F., WEISS A., WIEDNER M.C., VAN DER WIEL M.H.D. and XILOURIS E.M.
Abstract (from CDS):
(Ultra) luminous infrared galaxies ((U)LIRGs) are objects characterized by their extreme infrared (8-1000 µm) luminosities (LLIRG> 1011 L☉ and LULIRG> 1012 L☉). The Herschel Comprehensive ULIRG Emission Survey (PI: van der Werf) presents a representative flux-limited sample of 29 (U)LIRGs that spans the full luminosity range of these objects (1011 L☉ ≤ LIR ≤ 1013 L☉). With the Herschel Space Observatory, we observe [C II] 157 µm, [O I] 63 µm, and [O I] 145 µm line emission with Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer, CO J = 4-3 through J = 13-12, [C I] 370 µm, and [C I] 609 µm with SPIRE, and low-J CO transitions with ground-based telescopes. The CO ladders of the sample are separated into three classes based on their excitation level. In 13 of the galaxies, the [O I] 63 µm emission line is self absorbed. Comparing the CO excitation to the InfraRed Astronomical Satellite 60/100 µm ratio and to far infrared luminosity, we find that the CO excitation is more correlated to the far infrared colors. We present cooling budgets for the galaxies and find fine-structure line flux deficits in the [C II], [Si II], [O I], and [C I] lines in the objects with the highest far IR fluxes, but do not observe this for CO 4 ≤ Jupp ≤ 13. In order to study the heating of the molecular gas, we present a combination of three diagnostic quantities to help determine the dominant heating source. Using the CO excitation, the CO J = 1-0 linewidth, and the active galactic nucleus (AGN) contribution, we conclude that galaxies with large CO linewidths always have high-excitation CO ladders, and often low AGN contributions, suggesting that mechanical heating is important.
galaxies: individual: ULIRGs - galaxies: ISM - molecular data - photon-dominated region, PDR - submillimeter: ISM
View the reference in ADS
To bookmark this query, right click on this link: simbad:2015ApJ...801...72R and select 'bookmark this link' or equivalent in the popup menu