Astrophys. J., 805, 92 (2015/June-1)
Dependency of dynamical ejections of O stars on the masses of very young star clusters.
OH S., KROUPA P. and PFLAMM-ALTENBURG J.
Abstract (from CDS):
Massive stars can be efficiently ejected from their birth star clusters through encounters with other massive stars. We study how the dynamical ejection fraction of O star systems varies with the masses of very young star clusters, Mecl, by means of direct N-body calculations. We include diverse initial conditions by varying the half-mass radius, initial mass segregation, initial binary fraction, and orbital parameters of the massive binaries. The results show robustly that the ejection fraction of O star systems exhibits a maximum at a cluster mass of 103.5M☉ for all models, even though the number of ejected systems increases with cluster mass. We show that lower mass clusters (Mecl ≈ 400M☉) are the dominant sources for populating the Galactic field with O stars by dynamical ejections, considering the mass function of embedded clusters. About 15% (up to ≈38%, depending on the cluster models) of O stars of which a significant fraction are binaries, and which would have formed in a ≈10 Myr epoch of star formation in a distribution of embedded clusters, will be dynamically ejected to the field. Individual clusters may eject 100% of their original O star content. A large fraction of such O stars have velocities up to only 10 km/s. Synthesising a young star cluster mass function, it follows, given the stellar-dynamical results presented here, that the observed fractions of field and runaway O stars, and the binary fractions among them, can be well understood theoretically if all O stars form in embedded clusters.
galaxies: star clusters: general - methods: numerical - open clusters and associations: general - stars: kinematics and dynamics - stars: massive
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