Astrophys. J., 814, 114 (2015/December-1)
Mass assembly of stellar systems and their evolution with the SMA (MASSES). Multiplicity and the physical environment in L1448N.
LEE K.I., DUNHAM M.M., MYERS P.C., TOBIN J.J., KRISTENSEN L.E., PINEDA J.E., VOROBYOV E.I., OFFNER S.S.R., ARCE H.G., LI Z.-Y., BOURKE T.L., JORGENSEN J.K., GOODMAN A.A., SADAVOY S.I., CHANDLER C.J., HARRIS R.J., KRATTER K., LOONEY L.W., MELIS C., PEREZ L.M. and SEGURA-COX D.
Abstract (from CDS):
We present continuum and molecular line observations at 230 and 345 GHz from the Submillimeter Array (SMA) toward three protostars in the Perseus L1448N region. The data are from the large project ''Mass Assembly of Stellar Systems and their Evolution with the SMA.'' Three dust continuum sources, Source B, Source NW, and Source A, are detected at both frequencies. These sources have corresponding emission peaks in C18O (J= 2 ->1), 13CO (J= 2 ->1), and HCO+ (J= 4 ->3), and have offsets with N2D+ (J= 3 ->2) peaks. High angular resolution data from a complementary continuum survey with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array show that Source B is associated with three 8 mm continuum objects, Source NW with two, and Source A remains single. These results suggest that multiplicity in L1448N exists at different spatial scales from a few thousand AU to <100 AU. Velocity gradients in each source obtained from two-dimensional fits to the SMA C18O emission are found to be perpendicular to within 20° of the outflow directions as revealed by 12CO (J= 2 ->1). We have observed that Sources B and NW with multiplicity have higher densities than Source A without multiplicity. This suggests that thermal Jeans fragmentation can be relevant in the fragmentation process. However, we have not observed a difference in the ratio between rotational and gravitational energy between sources with and without multiplicity. We also have not observed a trend between non-thermal velocity dispersions and the level of fragmentation. Our study has provided the first direct and comprehensive comparison between multiplicity and core properties in low-mass protostars, although based on small number statistics.
binaries: general - ISM: kinematics and dynamics - ISM: molecules - stars: formation - stars: protostars - submillimeter: ISM
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