Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc., 452, 2911-2929 (2015/September-3)
Evidence for a [WR] or WEL-type binary nucleus in the bipolar planetary nebula Vy 1-2.
AKRAS S., BOUMIS P., MEABURN J., ALIKAKOS J., LOPEZ J.A. and GONCALVES D.R.
Abstract (from CDS):
We present high-dispersion spectroscopic data of the compact planetary nebula Vy 1-2, where high expansion velocities up to 100 km/s are found in the Hα, [Nii] and [OIII] emission lines. Hubble Space Telescope images reveal a bipolar structure. Vy 1-2 displays a bright ring-like structure with a size of 2.4 arcsecx3.2 arcsec and two faint bipolar lobes in the east-west direction. A faint pair of knots is also found, located almost symmetrically on opposite sides of the nebula at position angle = 305°. Furthermore, deep low-dispersion spectra are also presented and several emission lines are detected for the first time in this nebula, such as the doublet [ClIII] 5517, 5537, [Kiv] 6101, CII 6461 and the doublet Civ 5801, 5812Å. By comparison with the solar abundances, we find enhanced N, depleted C and solar O. The central star must have experienced the hot-bottom burning (CN-cycle) during the second dredge-up phase, implying a progenitor star of M ≥ 3 M☉. The very low C/O and N/O abundance ratios suggest a likely post-common envelope close binary system. A simple spherically symmetric geometry with either a blackbody or an H-deficient stellar atmosphere model is not able to reproduce the ionization structure of Vy 1-2. The effective temperature and luminosity of its central star indicate a young nebula located at a distance of ∼ 9.7 kpc with an age of ∼ 3500 yr. The detection of stellar emission lines, CII 6461, the doublet Civ λλ 5801, 5812 and OIII 5592 Å, emitted from an H-deficient star, indicates the presence of a late-type Wolf-Rayet or a WEL-type central star.
© 2015 The Authors Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Royal Astronomical Society (2015)
stars: Wolf-Rayet - ISM: abundances - ISM: jets and outflows - planetary nebulae: individual: Vy 1-2
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