Astronomy and Astrophysics, volume 585A, 149-149 (2016/1-1)
Infall through the evolution of high-mass star-forming clumps.
WYROWSKI F., GUESTEN R., MENTEN K.M., WIESEMEYER H., CSENGERI T., HEYMINCK S., KLEIN B., KOENIG C. and URQUHART J.S.
Abstract (from CDS):
With the GREAT receiver at the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA), nine massive molecular clumps have been observed in the ammonia 32+-22– line at 1.8THz in a search for signatures of infall. The sources were selected from the ATLASGAL submillimeter dust continuum survey of our Galaxy. Clumps with high masses covering a range of evolutionary stages based on their infrared properties were chosen. The ammonia line was detected in all sources, leading to five new detections and one confirmation of a previous detection of redshifted absorption in front of their strong THz continuum as a probe of infall in the clumps. These detections include two clumps embedded in infrared dark clouds. The measured velocity shifts of the absorptions compared to optically thin C17O (3-2) emission are 0.3-2.8km/s, corresponding to fractions of 3% to 30% of the free-fall velocities of the clumps. The ammonia infall signature is compared with complementary data of different transitions of HCN, HNC, CS, and HCO+, which are often used to probe infall because of their blue-skewed line profiles. The best agreement with the ammonia results is found for the HCO+ (4-3) transitions, but the latter is still strongly blended with emission from associated outflows. This outflow signature is far less prominent in the THz ammonia lines, which confirms it as a powerful probe of infall in molecular clumps. Infall rates in the range from 0.3 to 16x10–3M☉/yr were derived with a tentative correlation with the virial parameters of the clumps. The new observations show that infall on clump scales is ubiquitous through a wide range of evolutionary stages, from L/M covering about ten to several hundreds.
stars: formation - ISM: molecules - ISM: kinematics and dynamics
Table 4 G30.82-0.0 not identified.
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