2016PASP..128f4202S


C.D.S. - SIMBAD4 rel 1.7 - 2019.11.20CET01:33:35

2016PASP..128f4202S - Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac., 128, part no 6, 4202-64202 (2016)

Comparison of Hipparcos trigonometric and Mount Wilson spectroscopic parallaxes for 90 subgiants that defined the class in 1935.

SANDAGE A., BEATON R.L. and MAJEWSKI S.R.

Abstract (from CDS):

A history is given of the discovery between 1914 and 1935 of stars of intermediate luminosity between giants and dwarfs with spectral types between G0 to K3. The Mount Wilson spectroscopists identified about 90 such stars in their 1935 summary paper of spectroscopic absolute magnitudes for 4179 stars. Called "subgiants" by Stromberg, these 90 stars defined the group at the time. The position of the Mount Wilson subgiants in the HR diagram caused difficulties in comparisons of high weight trigonometric parallaxes being measured in the 1930s and with Russell's prevailing evolution proposal, and critics questioned the reality of the Mount Wilson subgiants. To show that the 1935 Mount Wilson subgiants are real, we compare, star-by-star, the Mount Wilson spectroscopic absolute magnitudes of the 90 stars defining their sample against those absolute magnitudes derived from Hipparcos trigonometric parallaxes. We address concerns over biases in the Mount Wilson calibration sample and biases created by the adopted methodology for calibration. Historically, these concerns were sufficient to discredit the discovery of subgiants in the Mount Wilson sample. However, as shown here, the majority of the Mount Wilson stars identified as subgiants that also have reliable Hipparcos trigonometric parallaxes do lie among the subgiant sequence in the Hipparcos HR diagram. Moreover, no significant offset is seen between the MV brightnesses derived from the Mount Wilson spectroscopic parallaxes and the MV values derived from Hipparcos trigonometric parallaxes with σπ/π0.10, which confirms in an impressive manner the efficacy of the original Mount Wilson assessments. The existence of subgiants proved that Russell's contraction proposal for stellar evolution from giants to the main sequence was incorrect. Instead, Gamow's 1944 unpublished conjecture that subgiants are post main-sequence stars just having left the main sequence was very nearly correct but was a decade before its time.

Abstract Copyright: © 2016. The Astronomical Society of the Pacific. All rights reserved.

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Status in Simbad:  being processed

Simbad objects: 104

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Number of rows : 104

N Identifier Otype ICRS (J2000)
RA
ICRS (J2000)
DEC
Mag U Mag B Mag V Mag R Mag I Sp type #ref
1850 - 2020
#notes
1 * 33 Psc RS* 00 05 20.14193 -05 42 27.4279 6.52 5.65 4.61 3.83 3.29 K0III-IV 199 0
2 HD 1037 PM* 00 14 40.4631934820 -14 48 18.865963312   7.670 6.616     G8III/IV 12 0
3 * bet Hyi PM* 00 25 45.07036 -77 15 15.2860 3.52 3.41 2.79 2.28 1.94 G0V 530 0
4 HD 2474 * 00 28 28.3475097378 -02 30 48.126031920   10.06 9.54     F6/7V 6 0
5 HD 2589 PM* 00 30 55.0785180672 +77 01 09.855585383   7.05   5.7   K0IV 55 0
6 * eps And PM* 00 38 33.34610 +29 18 42.3135 5.72 5.25 4.38 3.70 3.19 G7IIIFe-3CH1 255 0
7 HD 4398 PM* 00 46 11.7557687937 -22 31 19.572645862   6.48 5.50     G8/K0III 37 0
8 NGC 188 OpC 00 48 26 +85 15.3           ~ 796 0
9 * 21 Cet PM* 00 54 17.5931893601 -08 44 26.390882036   7.086 6.161     G8III 68 0
10 * 36 And ** 00 54 58.10609 +23 37 41.9799 7.37 6.46 5.45 4.67 4.17 K0IV(e) 179 0
11 * ups02 Cas Pe* 00 56 39.9041301647 +59 10 51.800571997   5.581 4.622     G8.5IIIbFe-0.5 205 0
12 HD 6473 PM* 01 09 12.1844381283 +80 00 41.694510681 7.750 7.170 6.230     ~ 15 0
13 * tet Cet HB* 01 24 01.4052830 -08 10 59.721253 5.57 4.65 3.59 2.83 2.26 K0IIIb 175 0
14 HD 10486 PM* 01 43 16.5038377077 +45 19 21.539072698 8.31 7.36 6.32 5.58 5.09 K2IV 56 0
15 HD 16042 * 02 35 22.2578118374 +30 40 51.061644741   9.31 8.25     K0III 11 0
16 BD+15 466 * 03 19 49.4 +16 24 49           ~ 1 0
17 * 59 Ari PM* 03 19 55.7955610419 +27 04 16.066156518   6.774 5.918     G7IV 58 0
18 * 66 Ari ** 03 28 26.5672397544 +22 48 14.432797937 7.670 6.990 6.030     K0IV 45 1
19 * del Eri RS* 03 43 14.9008787 -09 45 48.208444 5.13 4.46 3.54 2.82 2.32 K0+IV 535 0
20 HD 29613 RG* 04 39 19.7107223550 -14 21 33.083945720   6.510 5.463     K0.5IVa 52 0
21 * omi Col PM* 05 17 29.0892938 -34 53 42.744408 6.62 5.83 4.83 4.09 3.54 K1IV 76 0
22 HD 34538 RG* 05 17 40.2416240637 -13 31 11.371562025   6.436 5.488     G8IV 57 0
23 * lam Aur PM* 05 19 08.4754630747 +40 05 56.589643877 5.46 5.33 4.71 4.18 3.86 G1.5IV-VFe-1 484 0
24 * phi02 Ori PM* 05 36 54.3881859 +09 17 26.409553 5.70 5.04 4.09 3.33 2.78 G9.5IIIbFe-2.5 335 0
25 HD 37549 * 05 37 48.0876401999 -34 41 22.892786803   7.85 6.56     K1/2III 6 0
26 HD 37981 * 05 42 58.0754684323 +14 10 42.602435534   7.849 6.717     K1IV 20 0
27 HD 38136 * 05 43 01.1151467842 -11 49 27.557775893 8.720 8.770 8.720     B9.5/A0IV/V 11 0
28 * 24 Cam * 05 43 01.6738364260 +56 34 53.488395450   7.014 6.045     K0III 31 0
29 HD 39169 ** 05 50 37.8350046229 -01 25 46.249177546   10.61 9.79     K1III 16 0
30 * del Lep PM* 05 51 19.2961264 -20 52 44.723152 5.54 4.83 3.85 2.99 2.43 K0IIIbFe-1.5CH0.5 198 0
31 HD 40959 * 06 03 26.5659274394 +27 38 32.714654771   9.596 8.809 8.46   F2 11 0
32 * 6 Lyn PM* 06 30 47.1070542334 +58 09 45.480746151   6.798 5.855 6.95   K0.5IIIbFe0.5 100 1
33 * 8 Lyn PM* 06 37 41.3851247093 +61 28 52.450525053   6.83   5.4   G8IV-V 79 0
34 * 18 Lyn PM* 07 15 54.9040255436 +59 38 14.888245254   6.27   4.6   K2III 80 0
35 HD 71952 PM* 08 32 33.4471902951 +53 06 53.450085479   7.252 6.226     K0IV 37 0
36 * 34 Lyn PM* 08 41 01.0702830751 +45 50 02.417902788   6.344 5.359     G8IV 97 0
37 * 52 Cnc V* 08 51 10.8059587006 +15 59 57.945375365 8.840 8.290 7.370     G5 18 0
38 NGC 2682 OpC 08 51 18 +11 48.0           ~ 1990 0
39 HD 77818 PM* 09 07 26.1386581771 +58 52 30.196888868   8.62 7.63     K1IV 29 0
40 HD 78249 PM* 09 09 49.4249783521 +59 09 13.962361562       6.5   K1IV 39 0
41 HD 79452 PM* 09 15 14.2456984507 +34 38 00.663480710       5.5   G6III 133 0
42 HD 84453 PM* 09 46 42.4846931065 +45 06 51.816523578   7.762 6.812     K0IV 43 0
43 HD 84406 PM* 09 47 30.5459794959 +63 14 52.097124877       6.4   G5 29 0
44 * 26 Leo * 09 58 11.7046166419 +15 13 16.791221164 8.960 8.340 7.450     G5 21 0
45 HD 90572 PM* 10 27 30.20970 +03 33 48.7676   8.20 7.24     K0III 30 1
46 HD 90752 * 10 27 46.6590340517 -45 05 55.636438171   8.46 7.32     K2III 7 0
47 * 31 Sex PM* 10 30 30.9955347388 +02 09 00.728173670   8.021 6.972     K0III 21 0
48 * 33 Sex PM* 10 41 24.1859207379 -01 44 29.366215211   7.145 6.250     G9IV 148 0
49 * 43 LMi PM* 10 48 57.2287175056 +29 24 57.804823030   7.303 6.149     ~ 22 0
50 HD 94178 PM* 10 52 41.1007976107 +32 59 19.523064748   8.43 7.50 11.7   G5 22 0
51 * 46 LMi PM* 10 53 18.7048735 +34 12 53.537492 5.79 4.87 3.83 3.00 2.46 K0+III-IV 221 0
52 HD 96074 * 11 06 09.7961940363 +65 52 32.876945872   8.57 7.63     G5 12 0
53 * p04 Leo PM* 11 06 54.20761 +01 57 19.8924   6.49   5.0   K0III 85 1
54 HD 97100 PM* 11 10 55.5142803085 +30 29 31.641816825   9.86 9.01     G0 10 0
55 HD 102928 SB* 11 51 02.2268716968 -05 19 59.999570855   6.676 5.622     K0+IIIb: 88 0
56 * 10 Vir PM* 12 09 41.3106504785 +01 53 52.407556062       5.3   K0/1III 41 0
57 HD 110646 PM* 12 43 38.0500984646 -01 34 37.186003443   6.771 5.918     G8III 51 0
58 * 33 Vir PM* 12 46 22.5451134510 +09 32 22.866790905   6.66   5.1   G9 122 0
59 HD 113817 * 13 06 26.9889754916 -14 54 57.735091424   8.08 7.11     K0III 10 0
60 * 57 Vir PM* 13 15 58.7708535803 -19 56 35.159709257   6.25 5.22     K1IV- 80 0
61 HD 116713 Pe* 13 26 07.7990298137 -39 45 18.456410720 7.31 6.29 5.09     K0.5IIIbBa3 126 0
62 M 3 GlC 13 42 11.62 +28 22 38.2     6.39     ~ 2225 0
63 HD 123409 PM* 14 06 55.8293116677 +28 26 16.962433448 8.670 7.890 6.890     K0 24 0
64 HD 126400 ** 14 25 47.7683235766 -26 51 08.073024967   7.444 6.487     K0III 24 0
65 * g Boo PM* 14 28 37.8130531842 +49 50 41.461096501   6.44   5.1   G4III-IVFe-1 93 0
66 * 37 Lib PM* 15 34 10.7020905 -10 03 52.306353 6.48 5.63 4.62 3.85 3.33 K1III-IV 156 0
67 HD 140301 PM* 15 43 24.8586597898 -15 02 35.626350213   7.405 6.295     K0III 36 0
68 HD 140687 PM* 15 45 49.8289085538 -24 43 00.530605390   8.47 7.51     K0V 8 0
69 * kap CrB PM* 15 51 13.9314685012 +35 39 26.564729663 6.69 5.82 4.82 4.06 3.57 K1IVa 227 1
70 HD 143586 * 16 00 11.7440461635 +29 38 00.686069964   9.65 8.59     K0 7 0
71 HD 150275 PM* 16 30 38.8016626188 +77 26 47.459097214   7.34   5.8   K1III 70 0
72 HD 151216 * 16 44 45.9250215749 +33 18 58.792508083   10.18 9.18     K2 9 0
73 HD 152781 PM* 16 56 01.8439186103 -16 48 22.554551112   7.292 6.336     K0/1III/IV 32 0
74 CCDM J17121+2113B *i* 17 12 05.94816 +21 13 36.4296   10.2 9.0     K0 11 1
75 HD 156461 PM* 17 18 17.9501972816 -15 47 55.590059514   8.26 7.22     G8III 13 0
76 * 54 Oph * 17 34 21.9943360796 +13 09 39.439175698   7.48 6.53     G8III 18 0
77 HD 160042 ** 17 38 44.8560781394 -21 54 45.544025933   7.04 6.20     G6III/IV 18 0
78 * mu. Her ** 17 46 27.5266778 +27 43 14.437984 4.56 4.17 3.42 2.89 2.51 G5IV 638 1
79 HD 162076 * 17 48 24.7679845790 +20 33 55.588591489   6.642 5.687     G5IV 78 0
80 HD 165438 RG* 18 06 15.1972877959 -04 45 04.514150172   6.726 5.741     K1IV 62 0
81 HD 167042 PM* 18 10 31.6406187667 +54 17 11.593233378   6.89   5.4   K1III 129 1
82 HD 173399 * 18 42 55.4129012349 +44 55 30.899530148   8.02 7.19     G5IV 43 0
83 CCDM J18443+6103AB ** 18 44 18.26544 +61 02 53.3168   7.203 6.135     G7IV 26 1
84 * f Aql SB* 19 20 32.8981434896 -05 24 56.754473611   5.927 4.990     G8/K0IV 113 0
85 NGC 6791 OpC 19 20 53 +37 46.3   10.52 9.5     ~ 843 0
86 * b Aql PM* 19 24 58.2002406780 +11 56 39.882312617 6.35 5.93   4.7   G7IVHdel1 448 0
87 HD 185351 PM* 19 36 37.9763032863 +44 41 41.760069923   6.109 5.169     G8.5IIIbFe-0.5 124 0
88 * bet Aql PM* 19 55 18.7925630 +06 24 24.342501 5.040 4.560 3.710 3.05 2.56 G8IV 509 0
89 HD 194433 ** 20 26 52.94950 -37 24 10.4610           K2IV+K1V 41 0
90 * 74 Dra PM* 20 29 27.5627153292 +81 05 28.590552003   6.88   5.4   K0II 50 0
91 * eta Cep PM* 20 45 17.3755540 +61 50 19.616737 4.960 4.320 3.410 2.76 2.27 K0IV 414 0
92 HD 198896 ** 20 51 58.6378830089 +43 45 28.649130687   8.7 8.5     G8IV 21 1
93 HD 198732 ** 20 53 01.15586 -23 46 59.5561       7.26   K0III 17 0
94 CCDM J20557+0432AB ** 20 55 40.67814 +04 31 57.7969   6.87 6.05     K0III+F/G 40 1
95 * 9 Aqr * 21 01 08.3354352491 -13 31 47.984359609   7.41 6.55     G6/8III 13 0
96 CCDM J21143+4109AB ** 21 14 18.86957 +41 08 48.3967   7.90 7.17     G5 28 1
97 HD 212493 ** 22 25 23.3339895746 -39 13 22.300984629   9.61 8.70     K0III 8 0
98 * 35 Peg PM* 22 27 51.5223252490 +04 41 44.391554789 6.74 5.86 4.80 4.02 3.46 K1-III-IV 250 0
99 * 77 Aqr PM* 22 54 45.4700872785 -16 16 19.050456222   6.70 5.56     K2.5III 54 0
100 * 5 Psc PM* 23 08 40.9095327701 +02 07 40.355833093       4.9   G6IIIb 83 0
101 HD 221148 PM* 23 29 32.0811959294 -04 31 57.881823844   7.34 6.25     K3-IIIbFe2 128 0
102 HD 221639 PM* 23 33 20.7580251324 +60 24 39.399672255   8.11 7.19     K1V 26 0
103 * lam And RS* 23 37 33.8426114 +46 27 29.337984 5.54 4.84 3.82 3.04 2.47 G8IVk 638 0
104 * gam Cep SB* 23 39 20.9015326708 +77 37 56.505477975 5.190 4.250   2.6   K1III-IVCN1 544 1

    Equat.    Gal    SGal    Ecl

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2019.11.20-01:33:35

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