2017A&A...603A..33G


C.D.S. - SIMBAD4 rel 1.7 - 2020.02.17CET19:34:10

2017A&A...603A..33G - Astronomy and Astrophysics, volume 603A, 33-33 (2017/7-1)

ATLASGAL-selected massive clumps in the inner Galaxy. V. Temperature structure and evolution.

GIANNETTI A., LEURINI S., WYROWSKI F., URQUHART J., CSENGERI T., MENTEN K.M., KONIG C. and GUSTEN R.

Abstract (from CDS):

Context. Observational identification of a solid evolutionary sequence for high-mass star-forming regions is still missing. Spectroscopic observations give the opportunity to test possible schemes and connect the phases identified to physical processes.
Aims. We aim to use the progressive heating of the gas caused by the feedback of high-mass young stellar objects to prove the statistical validity of the most common schemes used to observationally define an evolutionary sequence for high-mass clumps, and characterise the sensitivity of different tracers to this process.
Methods. From the spectroscopic follow-ups carried out towards submillimeter continuum (dust) emission-selected massive clumps (the ATLASGAL TOP100 sample) with the IRAM 30m, Mopra, and APEX telescopes between 84GHz and 365GHz, we selected several multiplets of CH3CN, CH3CCH, and CH3OH emission lines to derive and compare the physical properties of the gas in the clumps along the evolutionary sequence, fitting simultaneously the large number of lines that these molecules have in the observed band. Our findings are compared with results obtained from optically thin CO isotopologues, dust, and ammonia from previous studies on the same sample.
Results. The chemical properties of each species have a major role on the measured physical properties. Low temperatures are traced by ammonia, methanol, and CO (in the early phases), the warm and dense envelope can be probed with CH3CN, CH3CCH, and, in evolved sources where CO is abundant in the gas phase, via its optically thin isotopologues. CH3OH and CH3CN are also abundant in the hot cores, and we suggest that their high-excitation transitions are good tools to study the kinematics in the hot gas associated with the inner envelope surrounding the young stellar objects that these clumps are hosting. All tracers show, to different degrees according to their properties, progressive warming with evolution. The relation between gas temperature and the luminosity-to-mass (L/M) ratio is reproduced by a simple toy model of a spherical, internally heated clump.
Conclusions. The evolutionary sequence defined for the clumps is statistically valid and we could identify the physical processes dominating in different intervals of L/M. For L/M≲2L/M a large quantity of the gas is still accumulated and compressed at the bottom of the potential well. Between 2L/M≲L/M≲40L/M the young stellar objects gain mass and increase in luminosity; the first hot cores hosting intermediate- or high-mass ZAMS stars appear around L/M∼10L/M. Finally, for L/M≥40L/M HII regions become common, showing that dissipation of the parental clump dominates.

Abstract Copyright: © ESO, 2017

Journal keyword(s): ISM: molecules - stars: formation - stars: massive - submillimeter: ISM - ISM: lines and bands - ISM: lines and bands

VizieR on-line data: <Available at CDS (J/A+A/603/A33): tablea1.dat tablea2.dat tablea3.dat tablea4.dat tablea5.dat tablea6.dat tablea7.dat tablea8.dat>

Simbad objects: 112

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Number of rows : 112

N Identifier Otype ICRS (J2000)
RA
ICRS (J2000)
DEC
Mag U Mag B Mag V Mag R Mag I Sp type #ref
1850 - 2020
#notes
1 NAME Extended Chandra Deep Field South reg 03 32 30.0 -27 48 20           ~ 594 0
2 NAME Horsehead Nebula DNe 05 40 59.0 -02 27 30           ~ 437 0
3 OH 301.14 -0.23 cor 12 35 35.14 -63 02 32.6           ~ 28 0
4 [HBM2005] G305.192-0.006 cor 13 11 13.6 -62 47 29           ~ 13 0
5 [HBM2005] G305.21+0.21 cor 13 11 14 -62 34.7           ~ 18 0
6 MMB G305.563+00.013 cor 13 14 26.90 -62 44 29.4           ~ 13 0
7 AGAL G305.794-00.096 Y*O 13 16 32.84 -62 49 41.3           ~ 10 0
8 MMB G309.384-00.135 cor 13 47 23.98 -62 18 12.0           ~ 20 0
9 AGAL G310.014+00.387 cor 13 51 40 -61 39.4           ~ 14 0
10 MMB G313.577+00.325 cor 14 20 08.58 -60 42 00.8           ~ 19 0
11 MMB G316.640-00.087 cor 14 44 18.45 -59 55 11.5           ~ 20 0
12 AGAL G317.867-00.151 Y*O 14 53 16 -59 26.5           ~ 14 0
13 AGAL G318.779-00.137 Y*O 14 59 33.06 -59 00 33.5           ~ 12 0
14 AGAL G320.881-00.397 Y*O 15 14 33.18 -58 11 28.5           ~ 11 0
15 MMB G326.662+00.520 cor 15 45 02.95 -54 09 03.1           ~ 14 0
16 IRAS 15437-5343 Y*O 15 47 32.73 -53 52 38.4           ~ 43 0
17 MMB G326.986-00.031 Y*O 15 49 07.67 -54 23 04.5           ~ 13 0
18 AGAL G327.393+00.199 cor 15 50 19 -53 57.1           ~ 13 0
19 GAL 327.30-00.60 HII 15 53 05.0 -54 35 24           ~ 121 0
20 OH 327.29 -0.58 cor 15 53 07.65 -54 37 06.1           ~ 39 0
21 AGAL G328.809+00.632 cor 15 55 49 -52 43.1           ~ 16 0
22 AGAL G329.029-00.206 cor 16 00 32 -53 12.9           ~ 14 0
23 IRAS 15573-5307 cor 16 01 09.999 -53 16 02.94           ~ 35 1
24 MMB G330.953-00.182 cor 16 09 52.37 -51 54 57.6           ~ 21 0
25 AGAL G331.709+00.582 Y*O 16 10 06.61 -50 50 29.0           ~ 19 0
26 MMB G330.878-00.367 cor 16 10 19.80 -52 06 07.9           ~ 18 0
27 MMB G332.094-00.421 cor 16 16 16.45 -51 18 25.7           ~ 20 0
28 IRAS 16157-4957 cor 16 19 29.01 -50 04 41.3           ~ 27 0
29 MMB G332.826-00.549 cor 16 20 10.85 -50 53 14.2           ~ 22 0
30 MMB G333.135-00.431 cor 16 21 02.82 -50 35 12.0           ~ 17 0
31 AGAL G333.656+00.059 Y*O 16 21 11.61 -49 52 16.3           ~ 12 0
32 [LCU2014] G333.286-00.387 cor 16 21 30.3 -50 26 48           ~ 16 0
33 AGAL G333.604-00.212 cor 16 22 09.35 -50 05 58.8           ~ 16 0
34 OH 335.79 +0.17 cor 16 29 47.3094168743 -48 15 52.204707131           ~ 50 0
35 MMB G336.957-00.225 cor 16 36 16.9344603433 -47 40 48.047756433           ~ 15 0
36 MMB G337.176-00.032 cor 16 36 18.82 -47 23 19.9           ~ 17 0
37 AGAL G337.286+00.007 cor 16 36 35 -47 17.0           ~ 13 0
38 MMB G337.258-00.101 cor 16 36 56.32 -47 22 26.4           ~ 19 0
39 AGAL G337.704-00.054 cor 16 38 30 -47 00.7           ~ 16 0
40 [BE83] Maser 337.40-00.40 cor 16 38 50.52 -47 28 00.2           ~ 53 0
41 AGAL G338.066+00.044 Y*O 16 39 28.60 -46 40 34.6           ~ 11 0
42 AGAL G338.786+00.476 Y*O 16 40 22.55 -45 51 04.1           ~ 12 0
43 AGAL G338.926+00.554 cor 16 40 34 -45 41.7           ~ 15 0
44 AGAL G337.916-00.477 cor 16 41 10.6 -47 08 03           ~ 24 0
45 MMB G339.622-00.121 cor 16 46 05.99 -45 36 43.3           ~ 28 0
46 AGAL G340.374-00.391 Y*O 16 50 02.47 -45 12 43.0           ~ 14 0
47 MMB G340.785-00.096 cor 16 50 14.84 -44 42 26.3           ~ 41 0
48 OH 341.22 -0.21 cor 16 52 17.86 -44 26 52.3           ~ 45 0
49 AGAL G340.746-01.001 cor 16 54 03.66 -45 18 45.1           ~ 12 0
50 MMB G342.484+00.183 cor 16 55 02.30 -43 12 59.8           ~ 16 0
51 [PLW2012] G343.124-00.064-030.4 cor 16 58 17 -42 52.3           ~ 17 0
52 MMB G343.756-00.163 cor 17 00 49.89 -42 26 08.2           ~ 17 0
53 AGAL G345.718+00.817 cor 17 03.1 -40 17           ~ 16 0
54 Caswell CH3OH 344.23-00.57 cor 17 04 07.78 -42 18 39.5           ~ 27 0
55 OH 345.50 +0.35 cor 17 04 22.91 -40 44 21.7           ~ 58 0
56 MMB G345.487+00.314 cor 17 04 28.24 -40 46 28.7           ~ 23 0
57 IRAS 17016-4124 SFR 17 05 11.160 -41 29 06.00           ~ 47 0
58 AGAL G351.131+00.771 Y*O 17 19 34.42 -35 56 46.8           ~ 10 0
59 Caswell CH3OH 351.16+00.70 cor 17 19 57.50 -35 57 52.8           ~ 25 0
60 [BE83] Maser 351.24+00.67 cor 17 20 17.84 -35 54 46.0           ~ 25 0
61 AGAL G351.571+00.762 Y*O 17 20 51.00 -35 35 25.8           ~ 13 0
62 AGAL G351.416+00.646 cor 17 20 53 -35 47.0           ~ 17 0
63 NAME NGC 6334-I Cl* 17 20 53.35 -35 47 01.5           ~ 262 0
64 MMB G351.445+00.660 cor 17 20 54.61 -35 45 08.6           ~ 30 0
65 MMB G351.581-00.353 cor 17 25 24.9262 -36 12 42.383           ~ 28 0
66 AGAL G353.066+00.452 Y*O 17 26 14.2073 -34 31 41.429           ~ 14 0
67 OH 351.77 -0.54 cor 17 26 42.57 -36 09 17.6           ~ 81 0
68 AGAL G353.417-00.079 Y*O 17 29 18.94 -34 32 05.9           ~ 12 0
69 MMB G353.410-00.360 cor 17 30 26.18 -34 41 45.6           ~ 72 1
70 AGAL G354.944-00.537 Y*O 17 35 12.7753 -33 30 22.961           ~ 15 0
71 NAME Sgr B2 (North) Rad 17 47 20.2 -28 22 21           ~ 504 1
72 MMB G008.683-00.368 cor 18 06 23.49 -21 37 10.2           ~ 22 0
73 AGAL G008.706-00.414 Y*O 18 06 37.2081 -21 37 06.564           ~ 24 0
74 MMB G010.472+00.027 cor 18 08 38.20 -19 51 50.1           ~ 35 0
75 MMB G010.444-00.018 cor 18 08 45.1076 -19 54 33.194           ~ 31 0
76 MMB G010.627-00.384 cor 18 10 29.0046 -19 55 43.983           ~ 32 1
77 W 31c HII 18 10 29.1 -19 56 05           ~ 301 0
78 MMB G013.179+00.061 cor 18 14 00.96 -17 28 32.5           ~ 14 0
79 AGAL G012.804-00.199 cor 18 14 13.34 -17 55 45.3           ~ 15 0
80 AGAL G014.194-00.194 Y*O 18 16 58.5794 -16 42 14.134           ~ 23 0
81 AGAL G014.492-00.139 Y*O 18 17 22.0275 -16 24 57.391           ~ 24 0
82 MMB G013.657-00.599 cor 18 17 24.26 -17 22 12.5           ~ 15 0
83 AGAL G014.114-00.574 Y*O 18 18 13.2635 -16 57 11.844           ~ 16 0
84 MMB G014.631-00.577 cor 18 19 15.21 -16 30 04.5           ~ 13 0
85 MMB G015.034-00.677 cor 18 20 24.78 -16 11 34.6           ~ 14 0
86 NGC 6618 OpC 18 20 47 -16 10.3           ~ 1469 0
87 NAME IRDC 18223-3 Y*O 18 25 08.4002 -12 45 15.466           ~ 59 0
88 [CUS2014] G018.7344-0.2261 cor 18 25 56.4024 -12 42 36.876           ~ 21 0
89 MMB G018.888-00.475 cor 18 27 07.85 -12 41 35.9           ~ 13 0
90 MMB G019.884-00.534 cor 18 29 14.37 -11 50 23.0           ~ 12 0
91 AGAL G022.376+00.447 Y*O 18 30 24.5677 -09 10 25.029           ~ 36 0
92 MSX5C G023.0126-00.4177 IR 18 34 42.2 -09 00 41           ~ 43 0
93 AGAL G023.206-00.377 cor 18 34 55.4414 -08 49 11.648           ~ 23 0
94 AGAL G024.629+00.172 Y*O 18 35 35.9973 -07 18 02.858           ~ 25 0
95 AGAL G028.861+00.066 cor 18 43 46.3857 -03 35 26.817           ~ 20 0
96 AGAL G028.564-00.236 cor 18 44 17.69 -03 59 26.5           ~ 31 0
97 [HBM2005] G30.894+0.140 cor 18 47 13.6371 -01 44 55.554           ~ 19 0
98 IRAS 18449-0115 cor 18 47 34.4947 -01 12 40.269           ~ 299 0
99 [MSL2003] W43-MM1 cor 18 47 47.0 -01 54 28           ~ 88 0
100 AGAL G030.848-00.081 Y*O 18 47 55.6052 -01 53 24.265           ~ 25 0
101 AGAL G034.411+00.234 Y*O 18 53 18.0 +01 25 24           ~ 46 0
102 OH 34.26 +0.15 SFR 18 53 18.54 +01 14 57.9           ~ 456 0
103 [ZYL2017] G34-2 cor 18 53 18.6 +01 24 40           ~ 32 0
104 [CUS2014] G034.2572+0.1535 cor 18 53 18.6449 +01 15 01.574           ~ 26 0
105 [VTW2007] IRAS 18511 A cor 18 53 37.85 +01 50 30.5           ~ 8 0
106 AGAL G035.197-00.742 cor 18 58 12.79 +01 40 37.6           ~ 10 0
107 IRAS 18566+0408 cor 18 59 10.3479 +04 12 18.220           ~ 114 1
108 BGPS G043.169+00.009 cor 19 10 14.2145 +09 06 17.697           ~ 20 0
109 AGAL G049.489-00.389 cor 19 23 44.15 +14 30 29.5           ~ 9 0
110 AGAL G053.141+00.069 cor 19 29 18.2185 +17 56 18.996           ~ 20 1
111 AGAL G059.782+00.066 cor 19 43 10.83 +23 44 03.3           ~ 7 0
112 [WBN74] NGC 7538 IRS 9 Y*O 23 14 01.63 +61 27 20.2           ~ 340 0

    Equat.    Gal    SGal    Ecl

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2020.02.17-19:34:10

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