Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc., 465, 3390-3415 (2017/March-1)
X-rays across the galaxy population - I. Tracing the main sequence of star formation.
AIRD J., COIL A.L. and GEORGAKAKIS A.
Abstract (from CDS):
We use deep Chandra imaging to measure the distribution of X-ray luminosities (LX) for samples of star-forming galaxies as a function of stellar mass and redshift, using a Bayesian method to push below the nominal X-ray detection limits. Our luminosity distributions all show narrow peaks at LX <= 1042 erg/s that we associate with star formation, as opposed to AGN that are traced by a broad tail to higher LX. Tracking the luminosity of these peaks as a function of stellar mass reveals an 'X-ray main sequence' with a constant slope ≃0.63 ± 0.03 over 8.5 <= log M*/M_☉ <= 11.5 and 0.1 <= z <= 4, with a normalization that increases with redshift as (1 + z)^3.79 ± 0.12^. We also compare the peak X-ray luminosities with UV-to-IR tracers of star formation rates (SFRs) to calibrate the scaling between LX and SFR. We find that LX ∝ SFR0.83 x (1 + z)1.3, where the redshift evolution and non-linearity likely reflect changes in high-mass X-ray binary populations of star-forming galaxies. Using galaxies with a broader range of SFR, we also constrain a stellar-mass-dependent contribution to LX, likely related to low-mass X-ray binaries. Using this calibration, we convert our X-ray main sequence to SFRs and measure a star-forming main sequence with a constant slope ≃0.76 ± 0.06 and a normalization that evolves with redshift as (1 + z)^2.95 ± 0.33^. Based on the X-ray emission, there is no evidence for a break in the main sequence at high stellar masses, although we cannot rule out a turnover given the uncertainties in the scaling of LX to SFR.