Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc., 468, 3694-3708 (2017/July-1)
Simultaneous low- and high-mass star formation in a massive protocluster: ALMA observations of G11.92-0.61.
CYGANOWSKI C.J., BROGAN C.L., HUNTER T.R., SMITH R., KRUIJSSEN J.M.D., BONNELL I.A. and ZHANG Q.
Abstract (from CDS):
We present 1.05 mm Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) observations of the deeply embedded high-mass protocluster G11.92-0.61, designed to search for low-mass cores within the accretion reservoir of the massive protostars. Our ALMA mosaic, which covers an extent of ∼0.7 pc at sub-arcsecond (∼1400 au) resolution, reveals a rich population of 16 new millimetre continuum sources surrounding the three previously known millimetre cores. Most of the new sources are located in the outer reaches of the accretion reservoir: the median projected separation from the central, massive (proto)star MM1 is ∼0.17 pc. The derived physical properties of the new millimetre continuum sources are consistent with those of low-mass prestellar and protostellar cores in nearby star-forming regions: the median mass, radius and density of the new sources are 1.3 M☉, 1600 au and n_ H2∼107 cm–3. At least three of the low-mass cores in G11.92-0.61 drive molecular outflows, traced by high-velocity 12CO(3-2) (observed with the Submillimeter Array) and/or by H2CO and CH3OH emission (observed with ALMA). This finding, combined with the known outflow/accretion activity of MM1, indicates that high- and low-mass stars are forming (accreting) simultaneously within this protocluster. Our ALMA results are consistent with the predictions of competitive-accretion-type models in which high-mass stars form along with their surrounding clusters.
© 2017 The Authors Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Royal Astronomical Society
stars: formation - stars: protostars - ISM: individual objects: G11.92-0.61 - ISM: molecules - submillimetre: ISM - submillimetre: ISM
Table 2: [CBH2011b] G11.92-0.61 MMNN (Nos MM4-MM19) added, [CBH2011b] G11.92-0.61 MMN-CN (Nos MM1-C1 to MM1-C3, MM2-C1 to MM2-C3, MM3-C1 to MM3-C3).
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