Investigating the early evolution of planetary systems with ALMA and the Next Generation Very Large Array.
RICCI L., LIU S.-F., ISELLA A. and LI H.
Abstract (from CDS):
We investigate the potential of the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) and the Next Generation Very Large Array (ngVLA) to observe substructures in nearby young disks which are due to the gravitational interaction between disk material and planets close to the central star. We simulate the gas and dust dynamics in the disk using the LA-COMPASS hydrodynamical code. We generate synthetic images for the dust continuum emission at submillimeter to centimeter wavelengths and simulate ALMA and ngVLA observations. We explore the parameter space of some of the main disk and planet properties that would produce substructures that can be visible with ALMA and the ngVLA. We find that ngVLA observations with an angular resolution of 5 milliarcsec at 3 mm can reveal and characterize gaps and azimuthal asymmetries in disks hosting planets with masses down to ~5 M⊕~1–5 au from a solar-like star in the closest star-forming regions, whereas ALMA can detect gaps down to planetary masses of ~20 M⊕ at 5 au. Gaps opened by super-Earth planets with masses ~5–10 M⊕ are detectable by the ngVLA in the case of disks with low viscosity (α∼10–5) and low pressure scale height (h ≃ 0.025 au at 5 au). The ngVLA can measure the proper motion of azimuthal asymmetric structures associated with the disk-planet interaction as well as possible circumplanetary disks on timescales as short as one to a few weeks for planets at 1-5 au from the star.