A model for protostellar cluster luminosities and the impact on the CO-H2 conversion factor.
GACHES B.A.L. and OFFNER S.S.R.
Abstract (from CDS):
We construct a semianalytic model to study the effect of far-ultraviolet (FUV) radiation on gas chemistry from embedded protostars. We use the protostellar luminosity function (PLF) formalism of Offner & McKee to calculate the total, FUV, and ionizing cluster luminosity for various protostellar accretion histories and cluster sizes. We2 compare the model predictions with surveys of Gould Belt star-forming regions and find that the tapered turbulent core model matches best the mean luminosities and the spread in the data. We combine the cluster model with the photodissociation region astrochemistry code, 3D-PDR, to compute the impact of the FUV luminosity from embedded protostars on the CO-to-H2 conversion factor, XCO, as a function of cluster size, gas mass, and star formation efficiency. We find that XCO has a weak dependence on the FUV radiation from embedded sources for large clusters owing to high cloud optical depths. In smaller and more efficient clusters the embedded FUV increases XCO to levels consistent with the average Milky Way values. The internal physical and chemical structures of the cloud are significantly altered, and XCO depends strongly on the protostellar cluster mass for small efficient clouds.