Surface radioactivity or interactions? Multiple origins of early-excess Type Ia supernovae and associated subclasses.
JIANG J.-A., DOI M., MAEDA K. and SHIGEYAMA T.
Abstract (from CDS):
Early-phase Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia), especially those with luminosity enhancement within the first few days of explosions ("early-excess SNe Ia"), play an irreplaceable role in addressing the long-standing progenitor and explosion issue of SNe Ia. In this paper, we systematically investigate 11 early-excess SNe Ia from subluminous to luminous subclasses. Eight of them are selected from 23 SNe Ia with extremely early-phase optical light curves ("golden" early-phase SNe Ia), and three of them are selected from 40 SNe Ia (including 14 golden samples) with early-phase UV/NUV light curves. We found that previously discovered early-excess SNe Ia show a clear preference for specific SN Ia subclasses. In particular, the early-excess feature shown in all six luminous (91T- and 99aa-like) SNe Ia is in conflict with the viewing angle dependence predicted by the companion-ejecta interaction scenario. Instead, such a high early-excess fraction is likely related to the explosion physics of luminous SNe Ia; i.e., a more efficient detonation happening in the progenitor of luminous SNe Ia may consequently account for the early-excess feature powered by the radiation from a 56Ni-abundant outer layer. The diversity of early-excess features shown in different SN Ia subclasses suggests multiple origins of the discovered early-excess SNe Ia, challenging their applicability as a robust progenitor indicator. Further understanding of the early-excess diversity relies not only on multiband photometry and prompt-response spectroscopy of individual early-excess SNe Ia but also on investigations of the general early-phase light-curve behavior of each SN Ia subclass, which can be realized through ongoing/forthcoming transient survey projects in the near future.