Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc., 473, 447-456 (2018/January-1)
Rontgen spheres around active stars.
LOCCI D., CECCHI-PESTELLINI C., MICELA G., CIARAVELLA A. and ARESU G.
Abstract (from CDS):
X-rays are an important ingredient of the radiation environment of a variety of stars of different spectral types and age. We have modelled the X-ray transfer and energy deposition into a gas with solar composition, through an accurate description of the electron cascade following the history of the primary photoelectron energy deposition. We test and validate this description studying the possible formation of regions in which X-rays are the major ionization channel. Such regions, called Rontgen spheres may have considerable importance in the chemical and physical evolution of the gas embedding the emitting star. Around massive stars the concept of Rontgen sphere appears to be of limited use, as the formation of extended volumes with relevant levels of ionization is efficient just in a narrow range of gas volume densities. In clouds embedding low-mass pre-main-sequence stars significant volumes of gas are affected by ionization levels exceeding largely the cosmic-ray background ionization. In clusters arising in regions of vigorous star formation X-rays create an ionization network pervading densely the interstellar medium, and providing a natural feedback mechanism, which may affect planet and star formation processes.