Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc., 481, 59-97 (2018/November-3)
Far-infrared Herschel SPIRE spectroscopy of lensed starbursts reveals physical conditions of ionized gas.
ZHANG Z.-Y., IVISON R.J., GEORGE R.D., ZHAO Y., DUNNE L., HERRERA-CAMUS R., LEWIS A.J.R., LIU D., NAYLOR D., OTEO I., RIECHERS D.A., SMAIL I., YANG C., EALES S., HOPWOOD R., MADDOX S., OMONT A. and VAN DER WERF P.
Abstract (from CDS):
The most intensively star-forming galaxies are extremely luminous at far-infrared (FIR) wavelengths, highly obscured at optical and ultraviolet wavelengths, and lie at z >= 1-3. We present a programme of FIR spectroscopic observations with the SPIRE FTS, as well as photometric observations with PACS, both on board Herschel, towards a sample of 45 gravitationally lensed, dusty starbursts across z ∼ 1-3.6. In total, we detected 27 individual lines down to 3 σ, including nine [C II] 158 µm lines with confirmed spectroscopic redshifts, five possible [C II] lines consistent with their FIR photometric redshifts, and in some individual sources a few [O III] 88 µm, [O III] 52 µm, [O I] 145 µm, [O I] 63 µm, [N II] 122 µm and OH 119 µm (in absorption) lines. To derive the typical physical properties of the gas in the sample, we stack all spectra weighted by their intrinsic luminosity and by their 500µm flux densities, with the spectra scaled to a common redshift. In the stacked spectra, we detect emission lines of [C II] 158 µm, [N II] 122 µm, [O III] 88 µm, [O III] 52 µm, [O I] 63 µm and the absorption doublet of OH at 119 µm, at high fidelity. We find that the average electron densities traced by the [N II] and [O III] lines are higher than the average values in local star-forming galaxies and ULIRGs, using the same tracers. From the [N II]/[C II] and [O I]/[C II] ratios, we find that the [C II] emission is likely dominated by the photodominated regions (PDR), instead of by ionized gas or large-scale shocks.
© 2018 The Author(s) Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Royal Astronomical Society
galaxies: active - galaxies: high-redshift - galaxies: starburst - infrared: galaxies - submillimetre: galaxies
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