2019A&A...630L...4M


C.D.S. - SIMBAD4 rel 1.7 - 2021.01.22CET21:11:21

2019A&A...630L...4M - Astronomy and Astrophysics, volume 630, L4-4 (2019/10-1)

Origin of the system of globular clusters in the Milky Way.

MASSARI D., KOPPELMAN H.H. and HELMI A.

Abstract (from CDS):


Context. The assembly history experienced by the Milky Way is currently being unveiled thanks to the data provided by the Gaia mission. It is likely that the globular cluster system of our Galaxy has followed a similarly intricate formation path.
Aims. To constrain this formation path, we explore the link between the globular clusters and the known merging events that the Milky Way has experienced.
Methods. To this end, we combined the kinematic information provided by Gaia for almost all Galactic clusters, with the largest sample of cluster ages available after carefully correcting for systematic errors. To identify clusters with a common origin we analysed their dynamical properties, particularly in the space of integrals of motion.
Results. We find that about 40% of the clusters likely formed in situ. A similarly large fraction, 35%, appear to be possibly associated to known merger events, in particular to Gaia-Enceladus (19%), the Sagittarius dwarf galaxy (5%), the progenitor of the Helmi streams (6%), and to the Sequoia galaxy (5%), although some uncertainty remains due to the degree of overlap in their dynamical characteristics. Of the remaining clusters, 16% are tentatively associated to a group with high binding energy, while the rest are all on loosely bound orbits and likely have a more heterogeneous origin. The resulting age-metallicity relations are remarkably tight and differ in their detailed properties depending on the progenitor, providing further confidence on the associations made.
Conclusions. We provide a table listing the likely associations. Improved kinematic data by future Gaia data releases and especially a larger, systematic error-free sample of cluster ages would help to further solidify our conclusions.

Abstract Copyright: © ESO 2019

Journal keyword(s): globular clusters: general - Galaxy: kinematics and dynamics - galaxies: dwarf - Galaxy: formation - Galaxy: evolution

Simbad objects: 165

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Number of rows : 165

N Identifier Otype ICRS (J2000)
RA
ICRS (J2000)
DEC
Mag U Mag B Mag V Mag R Mag I Sp type #ref
1850 - 2021
#notes
1 NGC 104 GlC 00 24 05.359 -72 04 53.20   5.78 4.09     ~ 3603 0
2 NAME Eridanus ClG GrG 00 30 00 -21 30.0           ~ 151 0
3 NGC 288 GlC 00 52 45.24 -26 34 57.4   10 8.13     ~ 938 0
4 NGC 362 GlC 01 03 14.26 -70 50 55.6     6.58     ~ 958 0
5 NAME Whiting 1 GlC 02 02 56.8 -03 15 10           ~ 108 0
6 NGC 1261 GlC 03 12 16.21 -55 12 58.4     8.63     ~ 436 0
7 Cl Pal 1 GlC 03 33 20.04 +79 34 51.8   17.2       ~ 204 1
8 NAME E 1 GlC 03 55 02.5 -49 36 52           ~ 182 0
9 Cl Pal 2 GlC 04 46 05.91 +31 22 53.4   15       ~ 148 0
10 NGC 1851 GlC 05 14 06.76 -40 02 47.6   8.80 7.23     ~ 1262 0
11 M 79 GlC 05 24 10.59 -24 31 27.3   9.21 8.16     ~ 727 0
12 NGC 2298 GlC 06 48 59.41 -36 00 19.1   10.77 8.89     ~ 435 0
13 NGC 2419 GlC 07 38 08.51 +38 52 54.9     10.05     ~ 825 0
14 Koposov 2 GlC 07 58 17.00 +26 15 19.4           ~ 57 1
15 NAME PYX GLOBULAR CL GlC 09 07 57.80 -37 13 17.0           ~ 84 0
16 NGC 2808 GlC 09 12 03.10 -64 51 48.6   7.77 5.69     ~ 1269 0
17 NAME E 3 GlC 09 20 57.07 -77 16 54.8           ~ 132 0
18 NAME Sextans C GlC 10 05 30.96 +00 04 15.4   15.5 13.9     ~ 292 1
19 NGC 3201 GlC 10 17 36.82 -46 24 44.9   9.18 8.24     ~ 742 0
20 GCl 17 GlC 11 29 16.80 +28 58 25.0   14.4       ~ 321 1
21 NAME Crater Cluster GlC 11 36 16.20 -10 52 38.8           ~ 62 1
22 Koposov 1 GlC 11 59 18.40 +12 15 35.8           ~ 56 0
23 NGC 4147 GlC 12 10 06.149 +18 32 31.78   11.45 10.74     ~ 501 0
24 NGC 4372 GlC 12 25 45.43 -72 39 32.7   10.86 9.85     ~ 267 0
25 C 1235-509 GlC 12 38 40.20 -51 09 01.0           ~ 325 0
26 M 68 GlC 12 39 27.98 -26 44 38.6   10.26 7.96     ~ 893 0
27 NGC 4833 GlC 12 59 33.92 -70 52 35.4   8.72 7.79     ~ 360 0
28 M 53 GlC 13 12 55.25 +18 10 05.4   8.95 7.79     ~ 728 0
29 NGC 5053 GlC 13 16 27.09 +17 42 00.9     9.96     ~ 546 0
30 NGC 5139 GlC 13 26 47.28 -47 28 46.1   6.12 5.33     ~ 3055 0
31 M 3 GlC 13 42 11.62 +28 22 38.2     6.39     ~ 2290 0
32 NGC 5286 GlC 13 46 26.81 -51 22 27.3   9.18 8.31     ~ 372 0
33 C 1353-269 GlC 13 56 21.702 -27 10 03.00           ~ 105 0
34 NGC 5466 GlC 14 05 27.29 +28 32 04.0   10.5 9.70     ~ 735 0
35 NGC 5634 GlC 14 29 37.28 -05 58 35.1   10.69 10.05     ~ 253 0
36 NGC 5694 GlC 14 39 36.52 -26 32 18.0   11.58 10.89     ~ 270 0
37 IC 4499 GlC 15 00 18.57 -82 12 49.6     8.56     ~ 314 0
38 NGC 5824 GlC 15 03 58.612 -33 04 06.70   10.28 9.56     ~ 347 0
39 NAME Serpens Dwarf GlC 15 16 05.30 -00 06 41.0   15.1       ~ 638 1
40 NGC 5897 GlC 15 17 24.40 -21 00 36.4   10.16 8.52     ~ 343 0
41 M 5 GlC 15 18 33.22 +02 04 51.7   7.34 5.95     ~ 1796 0
42 NGC 5927 GlC 15 28 00.69 -50 40 22.9   10.13 8.86     ~ 410 0
43 NGC 5946 GlC 15 35 28.58 -50 39 35.0   11.98 10.72     ~ 168 0
44 ESO 224-8 OpC 15 39 05.4 -50 03 02           ~ 54 0
45 NGC 5986 GlC 15 46 03.00 -37 47 11.1     6.92     ~ 312 0
46 [FSR2007] 1716 OpC 16 10 33.0 -53 44 12           ~ 29 0
47 GCl 38 GlC 16 10 59.00 +14 57 42.0           ~ 332 0
48 Cl Lynga 7 GlC 16 11 03.65 -55 19 04.0           ~ 92 0
49 M 80 GlC 16 17 02.41 -22 58 33.9           ~ 631 0
50 M 4 GlC 16 23 35.22 -26 31 32.7           ~ 1698 0
51 NGC 6101 GlC 16 25 48.12 -72 12 07.9   10.90 10.08     ~ 245 0
52 NGC 6144 GlC 16 27 13.86 -26 01 24.6   10.55 9.63     ~ 208 0
53 NGC 6139 GlC 16 27 39.987 -38 50 57.03   11.03 9.68     ~ 182 0
54 ESO 390-6 GlC 16 28 40.10 -35 21 13.0     12.0     ~ 78 0
55 M 107 GlC 16 32 31.86 -13 03 13.6   9.96 8.85     ~ 716 0
56 ESO 452-11 GlC 16 39 25.50 -28 23 52.0           ~ 45 0
57 M 13 GlC 16 41 41.634 +36 27 40.75     5.8     ~ 2027 0
58 NGC 6229 GlC 16 46 58.641 +47 31 36.38   9.38 9.86     ~ 318 0
59 M 12 GlC 16 47 14.18 -01 56 54.7   8.52 6.07     ~ 586 0
60 NAME 2MASS-GC03 GlC 16 52 10.602 -47 03 29.00           ~ 38 0
61 NGC 6235 GlC 16 53 25.36 -22 10 38.8   11.99 7.20     ~ 162 0
62 M 10 GlC 16 57 09.05 -04 06 01.1     4.98     ~ 698 0
63 NGC 6256 GlC 16 59 32.68 -37 07 17.1           ~ 119 0
64 GCl 50 GlC 16 59 51.1 -00 32 00   15.70       ~ 168 1
65 M 62 GlC 17 01 12.60 -30 06 44.5   8.55 7.39     ~ 525 0
66 M 19 GlC 17 02 37.69 -26 16 04.6   8.45 5.57     ~ 313 1
67 NGC 6284 GlC 17 04 28.747 -24 45 51.22   10.72 7.43     ~ 241 0
68 NGC 6287 GlC 17 05 09.4907827015 -22 42 28.100632364   11.49 10.30     ~ 199 0
69 NGC 6293 GlC 17 10 10.42 -26 34 54.2   9.96 9.02     ~ 246 0
70 NGC 6304 GlC 17 14 32.25 -29 27 43.3   10.33 9.03     ~ 304 0
71 NGC 6316 GlC 17 16 37.42 -28 08 24.0   10.33 9.03     ~ 179 0
72 M 92 GlC 17 17 07.39 +43 08 09.4     6.52     ~ 1925 0
73 NGC 6325 GlC 17 17 59.27 -23 45 57.7   11.49       ~ 144 0
74 M 9 GlC 17 19 11.78 -18 30 58.5   9.36 8.42     ~ 282 0
75 NGC 6342 GlC 17 21 10.14 -19 35 14.7   11.25 10.01     ~ 249 0
76 NGC 6356 GlC 17 23 34.99 -17 48 46.9   10.01 7.42     ~ 322 1
77 NGC 6355 GlC 17 23 58.65 -26 21 12.3   12.46 11.05     ~ 128 0
78 NGC 6352 GlC 17 25 29.11 -48 25 19.8   9.95 8.87     ~ 344 0
79 IC 1257 Bz? 17 27 06.00 -07 05 00.0           ~ 62 0
80 ESO 454-29 GlC 17 27 33.24 -30 48 07.8           ~ 212 0
81 NGC 6366 GlC 17 27 44.24 -05 04 47.5           ~ 265 0
82 GCl 66.1 GlC 17 30 38.90 -31 35 44.0           ~ 98 0
83 ESO 455-11 GlC 17 31 05.20 -29 58 54.0           ~ 134 0
84 [KPS2012] MWSC 2617 GlC 17 31 12.0 -39 48 30           ~ 26 0
85 NGC 6362 GlC 17 31 54.99 -67 02 54.0   9.72 8.86     ~ 499 0
86 C 1730-333 GlC 17 33 24.50 -33 23 20.0           ~ 210 2
87 NGC 6380 GlC 17 34 28.00 -39 04 09.0           ~ 102 0
88 ESO 455-23 GlC 17 35 47.80 -30 28 11.0           ~ 203 0
89 NAME Tonantzintla 2 GlC 17 36 10.500 -38 33 12.00   14.5       ~ 70 0
90 NGC 6388 GlC 17 36 17.461 -44 44 08.34   7.40       ~ 818 1
91 M 14 GlC 17 37 36.15 -03 14 45.3   9.55 5.73     ~ 320 0
92 NGC 6401 GlC 17 38 36.93 -23 54 31.5   11.31 10.71     ~ 134 0
93 NGC 6397 GlC 17 40 42.09 -53 40 27.6   7.39 5.17     ~ 1817 1
94 ESO 520-21 GlC 17 43 42.20 -26 13 21.0           ~ 149 0
95 NGC 6426 GlC 17 44 54.71 +03 10 12.5           ~ 190 0
96 NAME Gal Center reg 17 45 40.04 -29 00 28.1           ~ 11932 0
97 NAME cl Djorgovski 1 GlC 17 47 28.30 -33 03 56.0           ~ 59 0
98 Cl Terzan 5 Cl* 17 48 05.00 -24 46 48.0           ~ 710 1
99 NGC 6440 GlC 17 48 52.67 -20 21 34.5   12.01 10.10     ~ 476 1
100 NGC 6441 GlC 17 50 13.06 -37 03 05.2   9.26 8.00     ~ 779 0
101 ESO 455-49 GlC 17 50 46.40 -31 16 31.0           ~ 156 0
102 NGC 6453 GlC 17 50 51.77 -34 35 55.1   10.49       ~ 134 0
103 NAME UKS 1 GlC 17 54 27.20 -24 08 43.0           ~ 67 0
104 NGC 6496 GlC 17 59 03.68 -44 15 57.4   9.96       ~ 185 0
105 GCl 80.1 GlC 18 01 38.80 -26 50 23.0           ~ 89 0
106 ESO 456-38 GlC 18 01 49.10 -27 49 33.0           ~ 61 0
107 NGC 6517 GlC 18 01 50.376 -08 57 34.39   11.08       ~ 147 0
108 ESO 521-16 GlC 18 02 57.40 -26 04 00.0           ~ 77 0
109 NGC 6522 GlC 18 03 34.08 -30 02 02.3   10.68 9.48     ~ 466 1
110 NGC 6535 GlC 18 03 50.51 -00 17 51.5   11.35 9.85     ~ 247 0
111 NGC 6528 GlC 18 04 49.61 -30 03 20.8   12.12 10.65     ~ 472 0
112 NGC 6539 GlC 18 04 49.74 -07 35 09.1           ~ 197 0
113 NGC 6540 GlC 18 06 08.60 -27 45 55.0           ~ 92 0
114 NGC 6544 GlC 18 07 20.58 -24 59 50.4   11.36 9.90     ~ 243 0
115 NGC 6541 GlC 18 08 02.36 -43 42 53.6   8.06 7.32     ~ 330 1
116 NAME 2MASS-GC01 GlC 18 08 21.8 -19 49 47           ~ 41 0
117 ESO 280-6 GlC 18 09 06.000 -46 25 24.00           ~ 34 0
118 NGC 6553 GlC 18 09 15.68 -25 54 27.9   9.08       ~ 542 0
119 NAME 2MASS-GC02 GlC 18 09 36.5 -20 46 44           ~ 37 0
120 NGC 6558 GlC 18 10 18.38 -31 45 48.6   12.39 11.29     ~ 185 0
121 IC 1276 GlC 18 10 44.26 -07 12 27.3           ~ 102 0
122 ESO 522-1 GlC 18 12 15.80 -22 44 31.0     14.86     ~ 77 1
123 NGC 6569 GlC 18 13 38.88 -31 49 35.2   10.78 9.47     ~ 192 0
124 ESO 456-78 GlC 18 14 06.600 -28 38 06.00           ~ 37 0
125 GLIMPSE C02 GlC 18 18 30.5 -16 58 38           ~ 12 0
126 NGC 6584 GlC 18 18 37.60 -52 12 56.8   10.32 8.17     ~ 250 0
127 NGC 6624 GlC 18 23 40.51 -30 21 39.7           ~ 787 1
128 M 28 GlC 18 24 32.89 -24 52 11.4           ~ 675 0
129 NGC 6638 GlC 18 30 56.25 -25 29 47.1   10.81 9.68     ~ 197 0
130 M 69 GlC 18 31 23.10 -32 20 53.1   9.32 8.31     ~ 412 1
131 NGC 6642 GlC 18 31 54.23 -23 28 34.1   11.30 10.24     ~ 165 0
132 NGC 6652 GlC 18 35 45.63 -32 59 26.6   10.64 9.75     ~ 359 0
133 M 22 GlC 18 36 23.94 -23 54 17.1   7.16 6.17     ~ 1236 0
134 ESO 591-12 GlC 18 41 29.90 -19 49 33.0           ~ 96 0
135 M 70 GlC 18 43 12.76 -32 17 31.6   9.76 9.06     ~ 337 0
136 GLIMPSE C01 GlC 18 48 49.7 -01 29 50           ~ 36 0
137 NGC 6712 GlC 18 53 04.32 -08 42 21.5   9.85 8.69     ~ 473 0
138 NAME SDG G 18 55 03.1 -30 28 42   4.5 3.6     ~ 1797 2
139 M 54 GlC 18 55 03.33 -30 28 47.5           ~ 922 0
140 NGC 6717 GlC 18 55 06.04 -22 42 05.3   11.29 10.35     ~ 199 0
141 NGC 6723 GlC 18 59 33.15 -36 37 56.1           ~ 438 0
142 NGC 6749 GlC 19 05 15.36 +01 54 00.0     12.4     ~ 129 0
143 NGC 6752 GlC 19 10 52.11 -59 59 04.4   6.96 6.28     ~ 1829 0
144 NGC 6760 GlC 19 11 12.06 +01 01 49.7   11.37 9.78     ~ 209 0
145 M 56 GlC 19 16 35.57 +30 11 00.5   8.90       ~ 367 0
146 Cl Terzan 7 GlC 19 17 43.92 -34 39 27.8           ~ 368 0
147 GCl 111 GlC 19 18 02.10 +18 34 18.0           ~ 91 0
148 Cl Arp 2 GlC 19 28 44.11 -30 21 20.3     12.41     ~ 305 0
149 M 55 GlC 19 39 59.71 -30 57 53.1     6.49     ~ 772 0
150 Cl Terzan 8 GlC 19 41 44.41 -33 59 58.1     11.54     ~ 263 0
151 GCl 114 GlC 19 45 14.40 -08 00 26.0     7.54     ~ 119 0
152 M 71 GlC 19 53 46.49 +18 46 45.1   7.91 6.1     ~ 1033 0
153 M 75 GlC 20 06 04.841 -21 55 20.14     8.26     ~ 318 0
154 NGC 6934 GlC 20 34 11.37 +07 24 16.1   10.48 9.75     ~ 364 0
155 M 72 GlC 20 53 27.70 -12 32 14.3   9.95 8.96     ~ 371 0
156 NGC 7006 GlC 21 01 29.465 +16 11 16.49     10.46     ~ 488 0
157 M 15 GlC 21 29 58.33 +12 10 01.2   3       ~ 2933 0
158 M 2 GlC 21 33 27.02 -00 49 23.7     6.25     ~ 913 1
159 M 30 GlC 21 40 22.12 -23 10 47.5     7.10     ~ 935 0
160 Cl Pal 12 GlC 21 46 38.84 -21 15 09.4     11.89     ~ 456 0
161 GCl 124 GlC 23 06 44.48 +12 46 19.2   15.6       ~ 237 1
162 NGC 7492 GlC 23 08 26.68 -15 36 41.3     10.48     ~ 261 0
163 NAME Gaia Sausage MGr ~ ~           ~ 64 0
164 NAME Gaia-Enceladus G ~ ~           ~ 83 0
165 NAME Galactic Bulge reg ~ ~           ~ 3518 0

    Equat.    Gal    SGal    Ecl

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2021.01.22-21:11:21

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