SCHNEIDER A.C., SHKOLNIK E.L., BARMAN T.S. and LOYD R.P.
Abstract (from CDS):
The discovery of habitable zone (HZ) planets around low-mass stars has highlighted the need for a comprehensive understanding of the radiation environments in which such planets reside. Of particular importance is knowledge of the far-ultraviolet (FUV) radiation, as low-mass stars are typically much more active than solar-type stars and the proximity of their HZs can be one-tenth the distance. The vast majority of the flux emitted by low-mass stars at FUV wavelengths occurs in the Lyα line at 1216 Å. However, measuring a low-mass star's Lyα emission directly is almost always impossible because of the contaminating effects of interstellar hydrogen and geocoronal airglow. We observed Ross 825 (K3) and Ross 1044 (M0), two stars with exceptional radial velocities, with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph on board the Hubble Space Telescope. Their radial velocities resulted in significant line shifts, allowing for a more complete view of their Lyα line profiles. We provide an updated relation between effective temperature and Lyα flux using Gaia DR2 astrometry as well as updated, model-independent relationships between Lyα flux and UV flux measurements from the Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) for low-mass stars. These new relations, in combination with GALEX's considerable spatial coverage, provide substantial predictive power for the Lyα environments for thousands of nearby, low-mass stars.