Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc., 487, 4890-4900 (2019/August-3)
Massive star feedback in clusters: variation of the FUV interstellar radiation field in time and space.
ALI A.A. and HARRIES T.J.
Abstract (from CDS):
We investigate radiative feedback from a 34 M☉ star in a 104 M☉ turbulent cloud using 3D radiation-hydrodynamics models. We use Monte Carlo radiative transfer to accurately compute photoionization equilibrium and radiation pressure, with multiple atomic species and silicate dust grains. We include the diffuse radiation field, dust absorption/re-emission, and scattering. The cloud is efficiently dispersed, with 75 per cent of the mass leaving the (32.3 pc)^3 grid within 4.3 Myr (1.1 <t\textrmff >). This compares to all mass exiting within 1.6 Myr (0.74 <t\textrmff >) in our previously published 103 M☉ cloud. At most 20 per cent of the mass is ionized, compared to 40 per cent in the lower mass model, despite the ionized volume fraction being 80 per cent in both, implying the higher mass cloud is more resilient to feedback. The total Jeans-unstable mass increases linearly up to 1500 M☉ before plateauing after 2 Myr, corresponding to a core formation efficiency of 15 per cent. We also measure the time-variation of the far-ultraviolet radiation field, G_0, impinging on other cluster members, taking into account for the first time how this changes in a dynamic cluster environment with intervening opacity sources and stellar motions. Many objects remain shielded in the first 0.5 Myr whilst the massive star is embedded, after which G_0 increases by orders of magnitude. Gas motions later on cause comparable drops that happen instantaneously and last for ∼1 Myr before being restored. This highly variable ultraviolet field will influence the photoevaporation of protoplanetary discs near massive stars.