Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc., 489, 641-652 (2019/October-2)
A comparison of explosion energies for simulated and observed core-collapse supernovae.
MURPHY J.W., MABANTA Q. and DOLENCE J.C.
Abstract (from CDS):
There are now 20 multidimensional core-collapse supernova (CCSN) simulations that explode. However, these simulations have explosion energies that are a few times 1050 erg, not 1051 erg. In this manuscript, we compare the inferred explosion energies of these simulations and observations of 40 SN IIP. Assuming a lognormal distribution, the mean explosion energy for these observations is µ_ obs_ = -0.23+0.08–0.12 (log10(E/1051 erg)) and the width is σ_ obs_ = 0.52+0.09–0.08. Only three CCSN codes have sufficient simulations to compare with observations: CHIMERA, CoCoNuT-FMT, and FORNAX. Currently, FORNAX has the largest sample of simulations. The two-dimensional FORNAX simulations show a correlation between explosion energy and progenitor mass, ranging from linear to quadratic, Esim ∝ M^1 - 2^; this correlation is consistent with inferences from observations. In addition, we infer the ratio of the observed-to-simulated explosion energies, Δ = log10(Eobs/Esim). For the CHIMERA set, Δ = 0.25 ± 0.07; for CoCoNuT-FMT, Δ = 0.49 ± 0.07; for FORNAX2D, Δ = 0.62 ± 0.06, and for FORNAX3D, Δ = 0.85 ± 0.07. On average, the simulations are less energetic than inferred energies from observations (Δ ≃ 0.6), but we also note that the variation among the simulations [max(Δ) - min(Δ) ≃ 0.6] is as large as this average offset. This suggests that further improvements to the simulations could resolve the discrepancy. Furthermore, both the simulations and observations are heavily biased. In this preliminary comparison, we model these biases, but to more reliably compare the explosion energies, we recommend strategies to unbias both the simulations and observations.
© 2019 The Author(s) Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Royal Astronomical Society
methods: statistical - stars: massive - supernovae: general
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