SIMBAD references

2020AJ....160..145H - Astron. J., 160, 145-145 (2020/September-0)

Exploring the mass-loss histories of the red supergiants.


Abstract (from CDS):

We report mid- to far-infrared imaging and photometry from 7 to 37 µm with SOFIA/FORCAST and 2 µm adaptive optics imaging with LBTI/LMIRCam of a large sample of red supergiants (RSGs) in four Galactic clusters: RSGC1, RSGC2 = Stephenson 2, RSGC3, and NGC 7419. The RSGs in these clusters cover their expected range in luminosity and initial mass from ≃9 to more than 25 M. The population includes examples of very late-type RSGs such as MY Cep, which may be near the end of the RSG stage, high-mass-losing maser sources, yellow hypergiants, and post-RSG candidates. Many of the stars and almost all of the most luminous have spectral energy distributions (SEDs) with extended infrared excess radiation at the longest wavelengths. To best model their SEDs, we use the DUSTY code with a variable radial density distribution function to estimate their mass-loss rates. Our {dot}M-luminosity relation for 42 RSGs basically follows the classical de Jager curve, but at luminosities below 105 L, we find a significant population of RSGs with {dot}M below the de Jager relation. At luminosities above 105 L, there is a rapid transition to higher mass-loss rates that approximates and overlaps the de Jager curve. We recommend that instead of using a linear relation or single curve, the empirical {dot}M-luminosity relation is better represented by a broad band. Interestingly, the transition to much higher {dot}M at about 105 L corresponds approximately to an initial mass of 18-20 M, which is close to the upper limit for RSGs becoming Type II supernovae.

Abstract Copyright: © 2020. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.

Journal keyword(s): Red supergiant stars - Stellar mass loss - Circumstellar matter

CDS comments: RSGC3-NN = [CND2009] SNN ; RSGC2-NN = Cl* Stephenson 2 DFK NN ; RSGC1-NN = [FMR2006] NN in Simbad.

Simbad objects: 84

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