Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc., 491, 1998-2009 (2020/January-2)
Diverse outcomes of planet formation and composition around low-mass stars and brown dwarfs.
MIGUEL Y., CRIDLAND A., ORMEL C.W., FORTNEY J.J. and IDA S.
Abstract (from CDS):
The detection of Earth-sized exoplanets around low-mass stars - in stars such as Proxima Centauri and TRAPPIST-1 - provide an exceptional chance to improve our understanding of the formation of planets around M stars and brown dwarfs. We explore the formation of such planets with a population synthesis code based on a planetesimal-driven model previously used to study the formation of the Jovian satellites. Because the discs have low mass and the stars are cool, the formation is an inefficient process that happens at short periods, generating compact planetary systems. Planets can be trapped in resonances and we follow the evolution of the planets after the gas has dissipated and they undergo orbit crossings and possible mergers. We find that formation of planets above Mars mass and in the planetesimal accretion scenario, is only possible around stars with masses M* >= 0.07Msun and discs of Mdisc >= 10-2 Msun. We find that planets above Earth-mass form around stars with masses larger than 0.15 Msun, while planets larger than 5 M⊕ do not form in our model, even not under the most optimal conditions (massive disc), showing that planets such as GJ 3512b form with another, more efficient mechanism. Our results show that the majority of planets form with a significant water fraction; that most of our synthetic planetary systems have 1, 2, or 3 planets, but those with 4, 5, 6, and 7 planets are also common, confirming that compact planetary systems with many planets should be a relatively common outcome of planet formation around small stars.
© 2019 The Author(s) Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Royal Astronomical Society
planets and satellites: composition - planets and satellites: formation - planets and satellites: general
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