Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc., 496, 1149-1165 (2020/August-1)
Flyby encounters between two planetary systems II: exploring the interactions of diverse planetary system architectures.
LI D., MUSTILL A.J. and DAVIES M.B.
Abstract (from CDS):
Planetary systems formed in clusters may be subject to stellar encounter flybys. Here, we create a diverse range of representative planetary systems with different orbital scales and planets' masses and examine encounters between them in a typical open cluster. We first explore the close-in multisuper Earth systems <=0.1 au. They are resistant to flybys in that only ones inside a few au can destabilize a planet or break the resonance between such planets. But these systems may capture giant planets on to wide orbits from the intruding star during distant flybys. If so, the original close-in small planets' orbits may be tilted together through Kozai-Lidov mechanism, forming a 'cold' system that is significantly inclined against the equator of the central host. Moving to the intermediately placed planets around solar-like stars, we find that the planets' mass gradient governs the systems' long-term evolution post-encounter: more massive planets have better chances to survive. Also, a system's angular momentum deficit, a quantity describing how eccentric/inclined the orbits are, measured immediately after the encounter, closely relates to the longevity of the systems - whether or not and when the systems turn unstable in the ensuing evolution millions of years post-encounter. We compare the orbits of the surviving planets in the unstable systems through (1) the immediate consequence of the stellar fly or (2) internal interplanetary scattering long post-encounter and find that those for the former are systematically colder. Finally, we show that massive wide-orbit multiplanet systems like that of HR 8799 can be easily disrupted and encounters at a few hundreds of au suffice.