Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc., 497, 5118-5135 (2020/October-1)
The changing-type SN 2014C may come from an 11-M☉ star stripped by binary interaction and violent eruption.
SUN N.-C., MAUND J.R. and CROWTHER P.A.
Abstract (from CDS):
SN 2014C was an unprecedented supernova (SN) that displayed a metamorphosis from Type Ib to Type IIn over ∼200 d. This transformation is consistent with a helium star having exploded in a cavity surrounded by a dense shell of the progenitor's stripped hydrogen envelope. For at least 5 yr post-explosion, the ejecta continued to interact with an outer, extended component of circumstellar medium (CSM) that was ejected even before the dense shell. It is still unclear, however, what kind of progenitor could have undergone such a complicated mass-loss history before it produced this peculiar SN. In this paper, we report a new analysis of SN 2014C's host star cluster based on data from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). By carefully fitting its spectral energy distribution (SED), we derive a precise cluster age of 20.0+3.5–2.6 Myr, which corresponds to the progenitor's lifetime assuming coevolution. Combined with binary stellar evolution models, we find that SN 2014C's progenitor may have been an ∼11-M☉ star in a relatively wide binary system. The progenitor's envelope was partially stripped by Case C or Case BC mass transfer via binary interaction, followed by a violent eruption that ejected the last hydrogen layer before terminal explosion. Thus, SN 2014C, in common with SNe 2006jc and 2015G, may be a third example that violent eruptions, with mass-loss rates matching luminous blue variable (LBV) giant eruptions, can also occur in much lower mass massive stars if their envelopes are partially or completely stripped in interacting binaries.
© 2020 The Author(s) Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Royal Astronomical Society
stars: mass-loss - supernovae: general - supernovae: individual: 2014C
Status at CDS
Examining the need for a new acronym.
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