Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc., 498, 4663-4679 (2020/November-2)
Gas-grain model of carbon fractionation in dense molecular clouds.
LOISON J.-C., WAKELAM V., GRATIER P. and HICKSON K.M.
Abstract (from CDS):
Carbon containing molecules in cold molecular clouds show various levels of isotopic fractionation through multiple observations. To understand such effects, we have developed a new gas-grain chemical model with updated 13C fractionation reactions (also including the corresponding reactions for 15 N, 18O, and 34S). For chemical ages typical of dense clouds, our nominal model leads to two 13C reservoirs: CO and the species that derive from CO, mainly s-CO and s-CH3OH, as well as C3 in the gas phase. The nominal model leads to strong enrichment in C3, c-C3H2, and C2H in contradiction with observations. When C3 reacts with oxygen atoms, the global agreement between the various observations and the simulations is rather good showing variable 13C fractionation levels that are specific to each species. Alternatively, hydrogen atom reactions lead to notable relative 13C fractionation effects for the two non-equivalent isotopologues of C2H, c-C3H2, and C2S. As there are several important fractionation reactions, some carbon bearing species are enriched in 13C, particularly CO, depleting atomic 13C in the gas phase. This induces a 13C depletion in CH4 formed on grain surfaces, an effect that is not observed in the CH4 in the Solar system, in particular on Titan. This seems to indicate a transformation of matter between the collapse of the molecular clouds, leading to the formation of the protostellar disc, and the formation of the planets. Or it means that the atomic carbon sticking to the grains reacts with the species already on the grains giving very little CH4.
© 2020 The Author(s) Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Royal Astronomical Society
astrochemistry - ISM: abundances - ISM: clouds - ISM: molecules
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