2005A&A...443..981K


Query : 2005A&A...443..981K

2005A&A...443..981K - Astronomy and Astrophysics, volume 443, 981-994 (2005/12-1)

Electron temperature fluctuations in planetary nebulae.

KRABBE A.C. and COPETTI M.V.F.

Abstract (from CDS):

An observational study of the spatial variation of the electron temperature and density in 10 galactic planetary nebulae is presented. The data consist of long-slit spectra of high signal-to-noise ratio in the 3100 to 6900Å range. Electron temperatures were determined from the [OIII](λ4959+λ5007)/λ4363 and [NII](λ6548+λ6583)/λ5755 ratios and from the Balmer discontinuity. Electron densities were estimated from the [SII]λ6716/λ6731, [ClIII]λ5517/λ5537, and [ArIV]λ4711/λ4740 ratios. Electron temperature variations of low amplitude were found across the nebular surface in the planetary nebulae studied. The temperature distribution across each nebula presents a variance relative to the mean corresponding to 0.0003≤t2s(Bal)≤0.0078, 0.0003≤t2s(NII)≤0.0097, and 0.0011≤t2s(OIII)≤0.0050. A systematic spatial variation of electron density has been detected in most of objects (NGC 1535, NGC 2438, NGC 2440, NGC 3132, NGC 3242, NGC 6302, NGC 6563, and NGC 7009). The remaining objects (NGC 6781 and NGC 6853) have not shown any significant electron density dependence on position. NGC 2438, NGC 6563, NGC 6781, and NGC 6853 are in general the most diffuse and probably evolved objects studied here, with low mean densities in the range Ne(SII) ≃95-158/cm3. An anti-correlation between temperature and density was found for NGC 2438 and NGC 3132, with the electron temperature increasing with the decrease of electron density and a correlation between temperature and density was found for NGC 2440, NGC 3242, NGC 6302, and NGC 7009, with the electron temperature increasing with the increase of electron density. These relationships seem to be associated with the structure of the nebula. The nebulae in which the correlation between temperature and density is present are ring shaped. The anti-correlation between temperature and density is found in bipolar planetary nebulae that are denser in the centre of the nebula.

Abstract Copyright:

Journal keyword(s): ISM: planetary nebulae: general

Simbad objects: 14

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Number of rows : 14
N Identifier Otype ICRS (J2000)
RA
ICRS (J2000)
DEC
Mag U Mag B Mag V Mag R Mag I Sp type #ref
1850 - 2022
#notes
1 NGC 1535 PN 04 14 15.7689913368 -12 44 21.932484324   12.01 12.82     sdO3: 508 0
2 NGC 2438 PN 07 41 50.5194253896 -14 44 07.470144744           ~ 280 3
3 NGC 2440 PN 07 41 54.91 -18 12 29.7   18.9       ~ 642 2
4 NGC 3132 PN 10 07 01.7656422504 -40 26 11.130553032   10.14 10.01     A2V 380 1
5 NGC 3242 PN 10 24 46.1335521792 -18 38 32.296857792   11.83 12.15     ~ 812 1
6 NGC 4361 PN 12 24 30.7510527528 -18 47 05.567336304   12.8 13.2     [WC] 389 1
7 NGC 6153 PN 16 31 30.5708444544 -40 15 12.646208700   10.7 15.55     ~ 299 0
8 NGC 6302 PN 17 13 44.339 -37 06 10.95   7.1 10.10     ~ 773 1
9 PN M 1-42 PN 18 11 04.99 -28 58 59.1   13.1 14.00     ~ 202 0
10 NGC 6563 PN 18 12 02.50 -33 52 07.0   11.7 10     ~ 176 1
11 M 57 PN 18 53 35.0967659112 +33 01 44.883287544   15.405 15.769 15.901 16.062 DA(O?) 815 2
12 NGC 6781 PN 19 18 28.085 +06 32 19.29     11.8     ~ 257 0
13 M 27 PN 19 59 36.3631850088 +22 43 16.312059552   13.749 14.089 14.247 14.405 DAO.6 580 0
14 NGC 7009 PN 21 04 10.8155187648 -11 21 48.580157556   12.48 12.07     ~ 980 1

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2022.07.02-01:16:21

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