2012A&A...540A.144S


C.D.S. - SIMBAD4 rel 1.7 - 2019.12.06CET08:52:02

2012A&A...540A.144S - Astronomy and Astrophysics, volume 540A, 144-144 (2012/4-1)

The Galactic WC stars. Stellar parameters from spectral analyses indicate a new evolutionary sequence.

SANDER A., HAMANN W.-R. and TODT H.

Abstract (from CDS):

The life cycles of massive stars from the main sequence to their explosion as supernovae or gamma ray bursts are not yet fully clear, and the empirical results from spectral analyses are partly in conflict with current evolutionary models. The spectral analysis of Wolf-Rayet stars requires the detailed modeling of expanding stellar atmospheres in non-LTE. The Galactic WN stars have been comprehensively analyzed with such models of the latest stage of sophistication, while a similarly comprehensive study of the Galactic WC sample remains undone. We aim to establish the stellar parameters and mass-loss rates of the Galactic WC stars. These data provide the empirical basis of studies of (i) the role of WC stars in the evolution of massive stars, (ii) the wind-driving mechanisms, and (iii) the feedback of WC stars as input to models of the chemical and dynamical evolution of galaxies. We analyze the nearly complete sample of un-obscured Galactic WC stars, using optical spectra as well as ultraviolet spectra when available. The observations are fitted with theoretical spectra, using the Potsdam Wolf-Rayet (PoWR) model atmosphere code. A large grid of line-blanked models has been established for the range of WC subtypes WC4 - WC8, and smaller grids for the WC9 parameter domain. Both WO stars and WN/WC transit types are also analyzed using special models. Stellar and atmospheric parameters are derived for more than 50 Galactic WC and two WO stars, covering almost the whole Galactic WC population as far as the stars are single, and un-obscured in the visual. In the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram, the WC stars reside between the hydrogen and the helium zero-age main sequences, having luminosities L from 104.9 to 105.6L. The mass-loss rates scale very tightly with L0.8. The two WO stars in our sample turn out to be outstandingly hot (≃200kK) and do not fit into the WC scheme. By comparing the empirical WC positions in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram with evolutionary models, and from recent supernova statistics, we conclude that WC stars have evolved from initial masses between 20 solar masses and 45M. In contrast to previous assumptions, it seems that WC stars in general do not descend from the most massive stars. Only the WO stars might stem from progenitors that have been initially more massive than 45M.

Abstract Copyright:

Journal keyword(s): stars: massive - stars: mass-loss - stars: Wolf-Rayet - stars: evolution - stars: atmospheres - stars: winds, outflows

Simbad objects: 93

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Number of rows : 93

N Identifier Otype ICRS (J2000)
RA
ICRS (J2000)
DEC
Mag U Mag B Mag V Mag R Mag I Sp type #ref
1850 - 2020
#notes
1 SN 2005gl SN* 00 49 50.02 +32 16 56.8       17.0   SN.IIn 120 2
2 NAME SMC G 00 52 38.0 -72 48 01   2.79 2.2     ~ 9130 1
3 HD 6327 WR* 01 05 23.0143603 +60 25 18.965197   11.49 11.33     WN2-w 104 0
4 HD 16523 WR* 02 41 11.6752293070 +56 43 49.735743590 10.03 10.34 9.99     WC6 121 0
5 HD 17638 WR* 02 52 11.6616623898 +56 56 07.129636750 10.99 10.86 10.41     WC6 107 0
6 SN 2005gj SN* 03 01 11.96 -00 33 13.9   18.6       SN.IaPec 169 1
7 NAME LMC G 05 23 34.6 -69 45 22     0.4     ~ 14373 1
8 V* V358 CMa WR* 07 20 22.3648862820 -23 43 56.522209754   15.04 14.11 13.87   WN4//WC 14 0
9 HD 62910 WR* 07 44 58.2216344436 -31 54 29.553631132 10.08 10.44 10.10 10.17   WN6/WC4 112 0
10 HD 63099 WR* 07 45 50.3992098899 -34 19 48.498292118 11.47 11.43 10.50 10.37   WC4+O7 100 0
11 * gam02 Vel WR* 08 09 31.95013 -47 20 11.7108 0.64 1.58 1.83 1.85 2.00 WC8+O7.5III-V 829 0
12 Ve 6-15 WR* 08 49 52.9567193962 -45 10 24.003480427   13.83 12.93 12.72   WC6 35 0
13 HD 76536 WR* 08 54 59.1670924993 -47 35 32.662255423 9.04 9.13 8.80 9.52   WC 111 0
14 HD 79573 WR* 09 13 11.7691173632 -50 06 25.521002105 12.30 11.80 10.69 10.52   WC6 72 0
15 HD 88500 WR* 10 10 31.9111494342 -60 38 42.417239257   10.84 10.65 10.67   WC5 75 0
16 WR 19 WR* 10 18 04.9886804992 -58 16 26.241795620   14.80 13.85     WC5+O9 56 0
17 V* V712 Car bL* 10 23 58.002 -57 45 48.99 15.452 15.461 13.5 12.6   O3If*/WN6+O3If*/WN6 146 1
18 Ass Car OB 1 As* 10 38 -59.0           ~ 137 0
19 HD 92809 WR* 10 41 38.3243559450 -58 46 18.721755258 8.95 9.28 9.03 9.60   WC6 135 0
20 [MS70] 1 WR* 10 44 32.1161451494 -57 50 23.981450852   14.71 13.54 13.26   WN5 33 0
21 LSWR 4 WR* 10 44 38.0516299704 -58 48 28.804895283   14.95 13.70 13.39   WC6+OB 34 0
22 NAME Homunculus Nebula ISM 10 45 03.5 -59 41 04           ~ 314 1
23 * eta Car Em* 10 45 03.5455050 -59 41 03.951060 6.37 7.034 6.21 4.90 4.41 OBepec 2155 0
24 MR 30 WR* 10 51 06.0017663106 -62 17 01.648960573   11.69 11.35 11.32   WC6+O7.5V 90 0
25 [MS70] 4 WR* 10 51 38.9063160120 -60 56 34.907455570 13.57 13.80 12.78 12.56   WO4+O5III/V((f)) 49 0
26 WR 31c WR* 10 57 42.8623279317 -60 34 00.455373970   17.33 16.37     WC6+OB 9 0
27 WR 32 WR* 10 59 52.9185821370 -59 52 43.398925567   15.96 14.70 14.79 13.34 WC5+OB? 19 0
28 HD 95435 WR* 11 00 00.7206077473 -57 48 59.273968690   11.78 11.61 11.67   WC6 53 0
29 WR 38 WR* 11 05 46.43 -61 13 48.8     14.66     WC4 38 2
30 WR 38b WR* 11 06 18.5765358312 -61 14 13.747317482   17.71 16.21     WC7+OB 10 0
31 WR 39 WR* 11 06 18.7256631005 -61 14 18.428457304   14.33 13.05 13.15   WC7 40 0
32 LS 2173 WR* 11 07 54.0718353772 -61 27 40.801628087   16.44 14.50 14.29   WC5+OB? 25 0
33 HD 97152 WR* 11 10 04.0798305535 -60 58 44.962711416 7.47 8.03 8.07 8.91   WC7+O7V 169 0
34 WRAY 16-97 WR* 11 38 05.0965069040 -62 16 01.900568734   14.98 13.92 13.60   WC6 37 2
35 WR 47c WR* 12 52 55.6814162155 -63 46 38.016975576           WC5 6 0
36 * tet Mus WR* 13 08 07.1527888825 -65 18 21.679641155 4.71 5.50 5.53 5.44 5.40 WC5+B0III 294 0
37 WR 48b WR* 13 11 27.7090439077 -63 45 59.859940699   16.65 14.96     ~ 7 0
38 WR 48a WR* 13 12 39.65 -62 42 55.8           WC6 75 0
39 CPD-61 3569 WR* 13 18 01.0418998739 -62 26 04.755158118 12.66 12.64 11.88 11.84   WC7+OB 59 0
40 HD 115473 WR* 13 18 27.9938060343 -58 08 13.603603690 9.09 9.68 9.00 9.72   WC5 100 0
41 HD 117297 WR* 13 30 53.2511996037 -62 04 51.856386987 10.81 11.10 10.90 10.70   WC8 85 0
42 WR 56 WR* 13 33 45.3813582944 -64 07 31.275908021   12.75 14.00 13.60   WC6 37 0
43 HD 119078 WR* 13 43 16.3585170935 -67 24 04.971391283 9.11 9.737 9.40 10.08   WC7/8 95 0
44 MR 51 WR* 13 49 04.4894389061 -65 41 56.120790651 12.75 12.95 12.71 12.89   WN5 54 0
45 WRAY 16-136 WR* 13 49 32.5620701404 -61 31 42.271625889 12.09 11.99 11.69 12.72   WC9d 45 1
46 HD 121194 WR* 13 55 48.4480921364 -61 09 48.458279758 14.34 13.65 12.20 12.12 10.31 WC8 37 0
47 Ass Cir OB 1 As* 14 45 -62.9           ~ 19 0
48 WR 64 WR* 14 56 55.1948891854 -55 50 58.552033391   15.11 15.08     WC6.5 22 0
49 WRAY 15-1297 WR* 15 13 41.7098852670 -59 11 44.971320833 16.25 15.58 13.65 13.11   WC9d+OB? 57 0
50 Cl Pismis 20 OpC 15 15 23 -59 04.0   8.69 7.8     ~ 84 0
51 WRAY 16-172 WR* 15 18 20.7582942767 -59 38 17.323706383 14.83 14.52 13.28 12.99   WC7 46 2
52 HD 136488 WR* 15 24 11.3111665819 -62 40 37.575311536 9.15 9.514 9.10 9.71   WC9d+OB? 110 0
53 HD 137603 WR* 15 29 44.6908093554 -58 34 51.248928169 10.98 10.95 9.71 9.78   WC9+OB 102 0
54 WRAY 16-206 WR* 16 12 37.4740016080 -46 37 36.878007414   16.49 15.57     WC9 27 1
55 WRAY 15-1581 WR* 16 59 02.1891502339 -45 43 10.016531285   16.34 14.49 14.31 11.95 WC9 36 0
56 MR 66 WR* 17 02 40.3825863866 -45 59 15.455194984   13.62 12.07 11.77   WC9 59 0
57 HD 156327 WR* 17 18 23.0613730 -34 24 30.630847 9.88 9.95 9.32 9.67   WC7+B0III 113 0
58 CPD-33 4347 WR* 17 18 49.7246525731 -33 57 41.389875461   13.93 12.56 12.21   WN8/WC9 61 0
59 HD 156385 WR* 17 19 29.9012727857 -45 38 23.874796927 6.55 6.97 6.92 8.11   WC7 151 0
60 HD 157451 WR* 17 25 23.2779746024 -43 29 31.469615959 10 10.59 10.20 10.46   WC9 79 0
61 MR 74 WR* 17 36 19.8953384759 -33 26 12.274561705 16.01 14.87 13.18 12.99   WC9 82 1
62 Cl Trumpler 27 OpC 17 36 20 -33 31.0   8.24 6.7     ~ 90 1
63 HD 318016 WR* 17 37 13.7437507039 -33 27 56.015803304 13.71 13.16 11.81 11.42   WN8/WC7 72 0
64 V* V3893 Sgr WR* 17 45 47.5403190596 -26 10 26.777772852   15.13 14.20 14.23   WR 104 1
65 SNR G002.4+01.4 HII 17 45 50.0 -26 14 28           ~ 53 2
66 HD 164270 WR* 18 01 43.1452971756 -32 42 55.161881733 8.52 8.97 8.74 9.51   WC9d+? 209 0
67 MR 80 WR* 18 02 04.1238716757 -23 37 42.144766363   14.85       WC9 204 2
68 HD 313643 WR* 18 04 43.6647304100 -21 09 30.557213987 13.58 13.27 12.02 11.67   WC9d 86 0
69 Ass Sgr OB 1 As* 18 06 -22.8           ~ 112 0
70 HD 165763 WR* 18 08 28.4691215895 -21 15 11.182287576 7.16 7.54 7.82 8.55   WC6 263 0
71 HD 168206 WR* 18 19 07.3628284656 -11 37 59.165038875 9.65 9.88 9.10     WC8+O8/9III/V 277 1
72 Ass Ser OB 1 As* 18 21 -14.4           ~ 69 0
73 HD 169010 WR* 18 23 16.3425134513 -13 43 26.103469647 13.53 12.99 12.02 11.95   WC 75 0
74 MR 88 WR* 18 31 02.5171189240 -06 35 49.629115130   15.34 14.19     WC9 37 0
75 THA 20-1 WR* 18 39 17.9036019736 -10 05 30.898511525   13.07 12.43     WC9d 50 0
76 EM* AS 320 WR* 18 44 13.1527220304 -03 47 57.779718279 13.7 13.340 13.983     WC9d 110 0
77 MR 93 WR* 19 28 15.6144084163 +19 33 21.527872339   14.83       WC7+O9(III) 98 0
78 WR 126 WR* 19 39 56.1963912195 +26 34 42.481192808   13.99 13.29     WC5 30 0
79 Ass Vul OB 2 As* 19 47.6 +28 49           ~ 24 0
80 HD 190002 WR* 20 01 39.7319767776 +32 34 17.995790084 13.83 13.42 12.67     WC7 63 0
81 Ass Cyg OB 3 As* 20 07 +35.9           ~ 162 0
82 HD 192103 WR* 20 11 53.5274946554 +36 11 50.523501826 7.77 8.13 8.11     WC8+OB: 315 0
83 HD 192641 WR* 20 14 31.7667382048 +36 39 39.597237795 7.80 8.20 7.91     WC7+O9 300 0
84 Cl Berkeley 87 OpC 20 21 43.01 +37 22 13.8           ~ 105 0
85 WR 142 WR* 20 21 44.3438534563 +37 22 30.543604467   14.39 12.99 12.73 11.04 WO2 119 0
86 HD 195177 WR* 20 28 22.6627301104 +38 37 18.970997793 13.42 12.67 11.46     WC4+Be 82 0
87 MR 110 WR* 20 32 03.0200838781 +41 15 20.497485753   15.99 13.97     WC5 71 0
88 EM* AS 422 WR* 20 32 06.2783569769 +40 48 29.521225515   13.46 11.83     WN7o/CE+O7V(f) 91 0
89 Ass Cyg OB 2 As* 20 33.2 +41 19           ~ 764 0
90 MR 112 WR* 20 35 47.0859278605 +41 22 44.703520146     12.64 12.16   WC5-6e+O8 137 1
91 WR 150 WR* 21 50 05.5724802971 +50 42 24.715095369   14.00 13.47     WC5 28 0
92 HD 213049 WR* 22 27 17.8189297929 +56 15 11.768608852   11.71 10.99     WC6 78 0
93 Ass Cep OB 1 As* 22 29 +56.6           ~ 80 0

    Equat.    Gal    SGal    Ecl

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2019.12.06-08:52:02

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