1998A&AS..129..363J


Query : 1998A&AS..129..363J

1998A&AS..129..363J - Astron. Astrophys., Suppl. Ser., 129, 363-398 (1998/April-2)

Circumstellar shells and mass loss rates: Clues to the evolution of S stars.

JORISSEN A. and KNAPP G.R.

Abstract (from CDS):

It is the purpose of this paper to rediscuss the circumstellar properties of S stars and to put these properties in perspective with our current understanding of the evolutionary status of S stars, in particular the intrinsic/extrinsic dichotomy. This dichotomy states that only Tc-rich ("intrinsic") S stars are genuine thermally-pulsing asymptotic giant branch stars, possibly involved in the M-S-C evolutionary sequence. Tc-poor S stars are referred to as "extrinsic" S stars, because they are the cooler analogs of barium stars, and like them, owe their chemical peculiarities to mass transfer across their binary system. Accordingly, an extensive data set probing the circumstellar environment of S stars (IRAS flux densities, maser emission, CO rotational lines) has been collected and critically evaluated. This data set combines new observations (9 stars have been observed in the CO J=2-1 line and 3 in the CO J=3-2 line, with four new detections) with existing material (all CO and maser observations of S stars published in the literature). The IRAS flux densities of S stars have been re-evaluated by co-adding the individual scans, in order to better handle the intrinsic variability of these stars in the IRAS bands, and possible contamination by Galactic cirrus. In the (K-[12], [25]-[60]) color-color diagram, S stars segregate into five distinct regions according to their Tc content and ZrO/TiO, C/O and IR spectral indices. Stars with photospheric colors (populating "Region A") may be identified with extrinsic S stars. For the other regions characterized by different excess levels in the 12, 25 and 60 µm bands, several diagnostics (like the IRAS spectral class, maser emission, and shape of CO rotational lines) have been collected to infer the physical properties of the dust shell. A simple radiative-transfer code has also been used to infer the chemical nature (carbonaceous or silicate) of the dust grains from the observed IR colors. S stars with large K-[12] excesses and moderate [25]-[60] excesses (populating Regions B and C) exhibit the signatures of oxygen-rich shells (9.7µm silicate emission and SiO maser emission). The situation is less clear for S stars with small K-[12] and moderate [25]-[60] indices (populating Regions D and E). Their IR colors are consistent with carbonaceous grains (as is their featureless IRAS spectrum, and absence of silicate or SiO maser emission), but these features may equally well be explained by a detached shell. For many of these stars with a large 60µm excess, the shell is indeed resolved by the IRAS beam at 60µm. The prototypical SC star FU Mon is among these. Since SC stars are believed to be in a very short-lived evolutionary phase where C/O=1 within 1%, FU Mon may be a good candidate for the "interrupted mass-loss" scenario advocated by Willems & de Jong (1988A&A...196..173W). The CO line profile of FU Mon is also peculiar in being quite narrow (Ve=2.8km/s), suggesting that the mass loss has just resumed in this star. Mass loss rates or upper limits have been derived for all S stars observed in the CO rotational lines, and range from <2x10–8M/yr for extrinsic S stars to 1x10–5M/yr (the Mira S star W Aql). These mass-loss rates correlate well with the K-[12] color index, which probes the dust loss rate, provided that {dot}(M)>10–8M/yr. Small mass-loss rates are found for extrinsic S stars, consistent with their not being so evolved (RGB or Early-AGB) as the Tc-rich S stars. This result does not support the claim often made in relation with symbiotic stars that binarity strongly enhances the mass-loss rate.

Abstract Copyright:

Journal keyword(s): stars: mass-loss - stars: AGB - stars: late-type - infrared: stars - radio lines: stars

VizieR on-line data: <Available at CDS (J/A+AS/129/363): table1.dat table2.dat table3.dat ref3.dat table4.dat table6.dat tablea1.dat>

Simbad objects: 121

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Number of rows : 121
N Identifier Otype ICRS (J2000)
RA
ICRS (J2000)
DEC
Mag U Mag B Mag V Mag R Mag I Sp type #ref
1850 - 2021
#notes
1 V* W Cet S* 00 02 07.3895453546 -14 40 33.034389419 16.64 16.09 14.46 9.14 5.38 S5.5-7/1.5-3e 82 0
2 V* IW Cas S* 00 02 44.2217341100 +48 42 50.811548073   13.56 9.88     S4-5.5/6e 30 0
3 V* X And S* 00 16 09.5920984274 +47 00 44.475277445           S2.5-5/6-7e 48 0
4 V* T Cet S* 00 21 46.2731778 -20 03 28.884826   7.32 5.74     M5-6Se 141 0
5 V* R And S* 00 24 01.9473999328 +38 34 37.326131071 10.61 9.36 7.39 4.45 2.30 S5-7/4-5e 342 0
6 V* U Cas S* 00 46 21.374064 +48 14 39.84828   12.97 10.88 9.57   S4.5-6/3-5e 92 0
7 V* RW And S* 00 47 18.9137502831 +32 41 08.196547728   12.78 11.79     S6/2e 83 0
8 V* RR And S* 00 51 23.2794895895 +34 22 36.302643717     8.40     S6-7/3-3.5e 51 0
9 V* V365 Cas S* 01 00 53.1528109537 +56 36 45.161559754   10.82 8.96     S6/3 49 0
10 V* DT Psc Sy* 01 14 04.9054771733 +28 31 46.468801232   8.016 6.347     S3+/2- 117 0
11 V* S Cas S* 01 19 41.9752833334 +72 36 40.857560507           S3-54-8 117 1
12 EM* GGR 210 S* 01 22 04.0911557936 +66 50 12.465237106   12.5       S 19 0
13 V* RZ Per S* 01 29 42.1654005882 +50 51 23.886467787   12.76 10.62     S3-7/7-8e 36 0
14 V* W And S* 02 17 32.9610669 +44 18 17.769045   9.62       S7-8/1e-M7Se 207 1
15 V* BI And S* 02 25 54.3404630305 +38 07 22.149790639   12.83 10.33     S8/4.5v 38 0
16 V* BD Cam Sy* 03 42 09.3284345030 +63 13 00.463126693 8.56 6.74 5.11 3.49 2.11 S3.5/2 199 0
17 V* WX Cam S* 03 49 03.7420058137 +53 10 59.131391686   12.67 10.18     S5/5.5 35 0
18 V* V1139 Tau S* 04 15 24.1239245008 +24 04 42.528750937   9.73 7.90     S 47 0
19 V* T Cam S* 04 40 08.8659750793 +66 08 48.691758479 10.72 9.65 7.30     S5-6/5e 113 0
20 * omi Ori S* 04 52 31.9660398278 +14 15 02.326990690   6.458 4.721     M3SIII 209 0
21 V* TV Aur S* 04 58 08.2134024577 +48 33 37.068122246   11.47 9.32     S5/6 59 0
22 V* GP Ori S* 05 02 48.0660273400 +15 19 12.667051210   11.95 12.20     SC7/8 92 0
23 V* V1261 Ori Sy* 05 22 18.6471223553 -08 39 58.053313671 10.28 8.57 6.77     S4,1 141 0
24 V* V535 Ori S* 05 23 20.6828740061 -04 34 14.393063429   11.71 10.01     M4wkS 30 1
25 V* NO Aur s*r 05 40 42.0501780592 +31 55 14.202295199 10.52 8.30 6.21 4.43 3.02 M2Iab 139 1
26 V* EI Tau S* 05 46 56.5179528854 +17 54 30.999739550           S 23 0
27 V* Z Tau S* 05 52 24.8526733859 +15 47 43.756546464     10.11 13.87   S7.51e 53 0
28 V* FU Mon S* 06 22 23.8510657225 +03 25 27.893619723 16.86 12.36 9.06     S6.5/7.5 111 1
29 V* OY CMa S* 06 28 55.8973734585 -11 50 59.977127768           S-*2e-MS 15 1
30 V* DY Gem S* 06 35 57.8107866595 +14 12 46.029119392   11.40 11.20     S8,5 55 0
31 V* CX Mon S* 06 37 18.4796758098 +00 55 16.287702064   13.10 10.21     S6:/5+ 28 0
32 V* KR CMa S* 06 48 50.5906324203 -20 25 32.249734999   9.97 8.50     M4S 34 0
33 V* R Lyn Mi* 07 01 18.0096855380 +55 19 49.727946188   9.58 7.56     S4-6.5/5-6e 120 0
34 V* R Gem S* 07 07 21.2699664341 +22 42 12.750071105 11.74 9.89 7.68 3.75 0.39 S3.5-6.5/6e 191 0
35 V* WX CMi S* 07 11 57.5516217532 +07 29 58.817927148           M6Se 17 1
36 V* V394 CMa S* 07 14 01.6553846593 -14 36 00.719417089   12.22 10.04     S 23 0
37 V* AA Cam S* 07 14 52.0705916927 +68 48 15.366595788   9.23 7.79     M5S 66 0
38 V* RR Mon S* 07 17 31.5404690692 +01 05 41.565915068     8.40     S8,2-M6Se 56 0
39 V* TT CMa S* 07 22 01.9790573288 -14 56 56.977442432           S 32 0
40 V* Y Lyn S* 07 28 11.6139802943 +45 59 26.215265764 9.88 8.71 6.98 4.25 1.96 M6S 136 0
41 V* NZ Gem S* 07 42 03.2174634459 +14 12 30.619752776 9.11 7.20 5.56 3.96 2.54 M3+II-III 111 0
42 V* SU Mon S* 07 42 17.4569218325 -10 52 47.206655257   11.3 9.60     S5-6/7 50 0
43 CD-36 3908 S* 07 47 58.9909035232 -37 13 07.496593155   12.36 10.48     S6*1 11 0
44 V* NQ Pup S* 07 53 05.2707361085 -11 37 29.352734508   9.34 7.64     S4.5/2 85 0
45 V* SU Pup S* 07 56 12.0792351238 -44 08 33.256605184       12.10   S4,2 29 0
46 V* X Vol S* 07 57 50.5525202906 -65 17 52.878460583   11.81 10.30     S7,2 16 0
47 CD-27 5131 S* 08 11 55.3569375052 -28 18 30.748251177   11.14 9.628     S4,2 20 0
48 V* V436 Pup LP* 08 23 16.9330968827 -38 17 09.889861711 9.81 7.95 6.32     M3+III 33 0
49 V* SZ Pyx S* 08 33 08.4040484275 -17 58 54.973662497   12.97 10.33     S 15 0
50 V* WY Pyx S* 08 36 48.9813806090 -36 27 36.488707275   12.73 11.56     S5,2 22 0
51 WRAY 18-94 S* 08 40 23.8517190210 -51 26 46.327320800   12.97 10.78     S6,8 12 0
52 V* UX Vol S* 08 46 17.3590204086 -71 02 20.261383619   13.45 9.02 8.33   SC 20 0
53 V* RS Cnc S* 09 10 38.7978379 +30 57 47.295961 8.65 7.62 5.95 3.06 0.73 M6S 302 0
54 V* UU Vel S* 09 35 33.2114535097 -54 03 25.916186222   13.55 11.00     S7,8e 28 0
55 WRAY 18-148 S* 09 36 57.8179994518 -65 50 06.742567646   13.03 10.76     S7,8 11 0
56 V* FM Hya S* 09 43 31.3776653187 -18 34 28.802378104     12.29     M0S 17 0
57 V* RR Car S* 09 58 04.8129341341 -58 51 40.389567914   9.08 7.50     M6.5S 35 0
58 V* KN Car S* 10 02 48.4938136686 -70 27 27.766577539   12.30 13.00     S5,6 20 0
59 WRAY 18-178 S* 10 03 29.9079331870 -46 49 14.431474973   12.98 10.60     S5,8 18 0
60 * 44 Leo LP* 10 25 15.1953922574 +08 47 05.435717658 9.20 7.23 5.61     M3III 70 0
61 V* HP Vel S* 10 41 02.7325635980 -52 05 08.817139156   10.37 8.79     S5,2 26 0
62 V* Z Ant S* 10 45 58.8782464417 -35 15 04.394587029   11.38 10.00     S5,4 29 0
63 HD 97393 S* 11 12 14.7912742789 -32 26 01.677698742 9.93 8.08 6.38     Swk 30 0
64 V* BH Cru C* 12 16 16.7898187344 -56 17 09.627987388   10.60 7.96     C8,2 74 1
65 V* V928 Cen S* 12 29 57.8899821232 -41 44 09.229617782 9.08 7.54 6.02     M2III 36 0
66 V* S UMa S* 12 43 56.6768716173 +61 05 35.501766941   11.3 7.10     S0.5-6/6e 164 1
67 V* UY Cen S* 13 16 31.8300061387 -44 42 15.757551544 14.09 10.03 7.13     S6/8 78 0
68 V* TT Cen S* 13 19 35.0158270198 -60 46 46.290333346     11.50     SC5:/8+ 51 0
69 V* EE Cen S* 13 27 15.6807672997 -57 58 14.164245295   12.60 11.46     S6*3 14 0
70 V* LY Mus Sy* 13 41 13.5882700789 -71 52 05.765360867   8.73 6.97     S6,2 34 0
71 V* AM Cen S* 13 47 17.6164374695 -53 21 25.925708582   11.50 9.20 8.40   SC 38 0
72 V* VX Cen S* 13 51 13.3432761682 -60 24 36.490618746   11.01 9.50     S8,5 27 0
73 V* BQ Oct S* 14 35 29.5920009251 -89 46 18.170033999   8.524 6.848     S5,1 39 0
74 WRAY 18-281 S* 14 41 08.0588658280 -61 18 54.630044574     14.8     S/6e 25 0
75 V* GI Lup S* 15 06 16.3155590069 -41 28 13.855126053     10.40     S7,8e 33 0
76 WOS 48 C* 15 23 05.0744336371 -51 25 58.881494593   17.85 16.66 14.51 10.18 C 124 1
77 V* ST Her S* 15 50 46.6248794228 +48 28 58.809091874   9.09 7.75     M6S-M7SIII: 157 0
78 V* VY Aps S* 16 00 53.6192408167 -74 28 52.929921002   12.48 9.17     SC 23 0
79 V* Y TrA S* 16 14 09.2168659857 -62 05 47.191242030           S4,1 17 0
80 WRAY 18-295 S* 16 24 05.2905818772 -28 15 12.187920804   14.09 11.35     S 19 0
81 Hen 3-1217 S* 16 35 31.0210332695 -50 32 10.406694966     14.00     Se 20 0
82 V* ST Sco S* 16 36 36.2201071224 -31 14 02.441986908   11.36 10.40     S8/4.5 48 0
83 HD 151011 S* 16 45 30.1777579313 -19 08 12.961820291   8.52 6.64     K5II 42 0
84 V* LQ Ara S* 16 51 41.3248072958 -61 01 20.322715814   12.83 10.30     SC 16 0
85 S1* 513 S* 16 59 17.5498503873 -53 39 32.868429539     12.01     S4,4 14 0
86 V* RT Sco S* 17 03 32.5563917962 -36 55 13.675752470     7.00     S7,2 67 0
87 V* TV Dra AB* 17 08 24.5033659606 +64 19 08.749158393   11.02 9.68     M8S: 37 0
88 V* V521 Oph S* 17 23 48.9036399446 -28 28 47.601456791   12.788 10.614 9.742   S5,4 32 0
89 V* OP Her S* 17 56 48.5265986840 +45 21 03.059260128 9.45 7.93 6.32 4.15 2.25 M6S 147 0
90 V* V409 Ser S* 17 59 00.7814201163 -11 33 23.152764093     14.00 11.99 9.65 S 21 0
91 V* V3574 Sgr S* 18 34 23.0111515242 -35 38 39.999886344   11.55 9.86     S5,4 13 0
92 V* VX Aql S* 19 00 09.6086657298 -01 34 56.713255865   15.23 12.20     SC5/8e 67 0
93 V* ST Sgr S* 19 01 29.1971991570 -12 45 34.111292361   12.13 7.20     S6-7.5/2.5e 69 0
94 V* V915 Aql S* 19 03 09.8933433069 +12 15 08.407858634   10.38 8.42     S5+/2 42 0
95 V* S Lyr S* 19 13 11.8053496248 +26 00 27.847739165           SC 71 0
96 V* W Aql S* 19 15 23.3581458294 -07 02 50.308513461   12.72 10.14     S6/6e 212 0
97 V* T Sgr S* 19 16 14.4369275919 -16 58 17.074185822   11.81 7.10     S4.5-6/5.5-6e 128 0
98 V* TT Sgr S* 19 25 34.0943793186 -20 06 54.776268089           M8wkS 18 0
99 V* EP Vul S* 19 33 17.8368383275 +23 39 19.498655898   15.65 11.00     S6.5/5 54 1
100 V* V1743 Cyg LP* 19 33 41.6056609174 +49 15 44.345568203 9.37 7.60 5.96     M4.5III 75 0
101 V* R Cyg S* 19 36 49.3563270715 +50 11 59.719752717   9.96 6.10   6.447 S4-8/6e 267 1
102 CSS2 41 S* 19 39 07.7682989836 +29 02 38.830749229           S 29 0
103 [NSC64] 1-39 S* 19 47 32.5980826564 +08 34 44.909111586           Se 18 0
104 * chi Cyg S* 19 50 33.9243904 +32 54 50.609683 7.02 6.06 4.24 1.81 -0.01 S6-9/1-2e 671 0
105 V* V1407 Aql S* 19 57 16.8799412403 -11 14 16.554370664     11.07     M6S 20 1
106 V* AA Cyg S* 20 04 27.6056199286 +36 49 00.463589913   10.93 8.79     S6/3 88 0
107 V* DK Vul S* 20 06 33.9520431494 +24 26 00.125562618   12.76 10.99     S4,2 36 0
108 V* SZ Cep S* 20 09 57.5571682958 +77 11 09.580559052   12.81 10.76     S4-6/6e 27 0
109 V* V378 Pav S* 20 14 25.7984496798 -62 16 45.126994827   8.44 6.76     S4,4 30 0
110 V* RZ Sgr S* 20 15 28.4028079595 -44 24 37.482236482   11.21 10.40     S4,4ep 70 0
111 V* V865 Aql S* 20 23 54.6418305964 +00 56 44.784506946   11.63 10.35     S7,2 42 0
112 CD-48 13866 S* 21 20 36.2769496102 -48 07 00.689515556           S2,5 10 0
113 V* RZ Peg Mi* 22 05 52.9711216769 +33 30 24.810194832   11.40 7.60     SC5-9/9-e 150 0
114 * pi.01 Gru S* 22 22 44.2112214756 -45 56 52.780402708 10.52 8.62 6.55 3.19 0.52 S5,7: 167 0
115 V* CV Cep S* 22 49 54.4419470070 +59 39 35.263998744   12.68 10.63     S5-7/1.5-2 22 0
116 V* RX Lac S* 22 49 56.8991009353 +41 03 04.306722519   10.11 8.62     S7.5/1e 50 0
117 V* V386 Cep LP* 22 53 12.3314657743 +61 17 00.550458793     10.79     M3Ib 47 0
118 V* HR Peg S* 22 54 35.6271949429 +16 56 30.599214359 9.970 8.160 6.360     S4+/1+ 128 0
119 * 57 Peg S* 23 09 31.4573825 +08 40 37.763634   6.52 5.14     M4S 125 0
120 V* PT Cep S* 23 40 22.3927925988 +70 26 29.607391265   13.9       M6S 14 0
121 V* WY Cas S* 23 58 01.3075303591 +56 29 13.468672815   12.48 10.76     S6-6.5/6-e 71 0

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