2001A&A...375..761B


Query : 2001A&A...375..761B

2001A&A...375..761B - Astronomy and Astrophysics, volume 375, 761-769 (2001/9-1)

The gravitational torque of bars in optically unbarred and barred galaxies.

BLOCK D.L., PUERARI I., KNAPEN J.H., ELMEGREEN B.G., BUTA R., STEDMAN S. and ELMEGREEN D.M.

Abstract (from CDS):

The relative bar torques for 45 galaxies observed at K-band with the 4.2m William Herschel Telescope are determined by transforming the light distributions into potentials and deriving the maximum ratios of the tangential forces relative to the radial forces. The results are combined with the bar torques for 30 other galaxies determined from our previous K-band survey (Buta & Block, 2001ApJ...550..243B). Relative bar torques determine the degree of spiral arm forcing, gas accretion, and bar evolution. They differ from other measures of bar strength, such as the relative amplitude of the bar determined photometrically, because they include the bulge and other disk light that contributes to the radial component of the total force. If the bulge is strong and the radial forcing large, then even a prominent bar can have a relatively weak influence on the azimuthal motions in the disk. Here we find that the relative bar torque correlates only weakly with the optical bar type listed in the Revised Shapley-Ames and de Vaucouleurs systems. In fact, some classically barred galaxies have weaker relative bar torques than classically unbarred galaxies. The optical class is a poor measure of azimuthal disk forcing for two reasons: some infrared bars are not seen optically, and some bars with strong bulges have their azimuthal forces so strongly diluted by the average radial force that they exert only small torques on their disks. The Hubble classification scheme poorly recognizes the gravitational influence of bars. Applications of our bar torque method to the high-redshift universe are briefly discussed.

Abstract Copyright:

Journal keyword(s): galaxies: spiral - galaxies: structure - galaxies: fundamental parameters - galaxies: kinematics and dynamics - galaxies: general

Simbad objects: 50

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Number of rows : 50
N Identifier Otype ICRS (J2000)
RA
ICRS (J2000)
DEC
Mag U Mag B Mag V Mag R Mag I Sp type #ref
1850 - 2022
#notes
1 NGC 210 GiP 00 40 34.9927609368 -13 52 21.999585108   11.8   11.00 11.4 ~ 168 0
2 NGC 488 GiG 01 21 46.7967133224 +05 15 24.623017524   15.0       ~ 284 0
3 M 74 G 01 36 41.7451236624 +15 47 01.107512304 10.52 10.00 9.46 9.16   ~ 1582 1
4 NGC 864 H2G 02 15 27.641 +06 00 09.43   12.00       ~ 214 1
5 NGC 922 EmG 02 25 04.400 -24 47 17.46   12.54 12.21 11.84   ~ 135 0
6 NGC 1042 GiP 02 40 23.9724818544 -08 26 00.736256616 11.47 11.56 11.02 11.7 11.4 ~ 245 1
7 NGC 1073 EmG 02 43 40.598 +01 22 33.13   11.3   11.3 11.8 ~ 317 0
8 NGC 1179 LSB 03 02 38.42 -18 53 51.4   12.61   11.83 12.2 ~ 94 0
9 NGC 1169 GiG 03 03 34.7219788176 +46 23 10.814305020   13.2       ~ 102 0
10 NGC 1300 GiP 03 19 41.0462219928 -19 24 40.187565432   11.16 10.42 9.90 10.7 ~ 490 0
11 NGC 2775 G 09 10 20.1334093488 +07 02 16.874157048   11.417 10.481 9.920 8.994 ~ 343 0
12 NGC 2805 GiP 09 20 20.3891233968 +64 06 10.716485004   11.9       ~ 202 1
13 NGC 2997 GiG 09 45 38.7542237472 -31 11 27.345810192   9.97 9.41 8.84 9.9 ~ 401 0
14 NGC 3180 GiG 10 18 16.985 +41 25 27.77   10.4       ~ 681 0
15 NGC 3344 EmG 10 43 31.150 +24 55 19.99 10.38 10.54 9.86 9.71   ~ 377 1
16 M 95 GiP 10 43 57.7313485800 +11 42 13.301191332 10.71 10.51 9.73 9.48   ~ 1039 2
17 M 96 GiP 10 46 45.744 +11 49 11.78 10.42 10.15 9.25 8.99   ~ 785 1
18 NGC 3486 Sy2 11 00 23.946 +28 58 29.35 10.89 11.11 10.53 10.40   ~ 335 1
19 NGC 3504 LIN 11 03 11.191 +27 58 20.77   13.48 12.93     ~ 505 2
20 NGC 3631 IG 11 21 02.8871865144 +53 10 10.415331660   11.0       ~ 342 1
21 NGC 3726 GiG 11 33 21.1367545656 +47 01 45.280222428   11.11   10.02   ~ 340 0
22 NGC 3810 GiG 11 40 58.7615811624 +11 28 15.808680696   11.4       ~ 325 2
23 NGC 4030 GiP 12 00 23.6102390784 -01 06 00.197099136   11.42   10.3 10.4 ~ 315 1
24 NGC 4051 Sy1 12 03 09.6101337312 +44 31 52.682601288   11.08 12.92 9.94   ~ 2092 1
25 NGC 4123 AGN 12 08 11.1187718376 +02 52 41.781736956   13.1       ~ 327 2
26 NGC 4145 GiP 12 10 01.4853493200 +39 53 02.280703020   12.2       ~ 153 0
27 M 99 H2G 12 18 49.625 +14 24 59.36 10.45 10.44 9.87     ~ 851 2
28 M 61 Sy2 12 21 54.9282582888 +04 28 25.597367184 10.07 10.18 9.65     ~ 943 2
29 NGC 4314 LIN 12 22 32.0223000912 +29 53 43.814812200 11.72 11.43 10.58     ~ 470 1
30 M 100 AGN 12 22 54.9299993592 +15 49 20.296257960 10.04 10.05 9.35     ~ 1752 2
31 NAME Virgo Cluster ClG 12 26 32.1 +12 43 24           ~ 6317 0
32 NGC 4450 LIN 12 28 29.5910654016 +17 05 05.976112020   10.90 10.08     ~ 535 2
33 M 88 Sy2 12 31 59.1525062448 +14 25 13.148971824   14.33 13.18     ~ 768 1
34 NGC 4535 H2G 12 34 20.3443516704 +08 11 51.908488116   11.1       ~ 572 0
35 M 91 LIN 12 35 26.4446761320 +14 29 46.760333748   14.63 13.57     ~ 564 0
36 M 58 SyG 12 37 43.597 +11 49 05.12 10.80 10.48 9.66     ~ 1027 2
37 NGC 4618 GiP 12 41 32.8976471760 +41 09 03.185175528 11.03 11.22 10.78     ~ 312 2
38 NGC 4689 H2G 12 47 45.5568088416 +13 45 46.135889100   12.8       ~ 365 0
39 NGC 4725 Sy2 12 50 26.5716367992 +25 30 02.733090588   13.45 12.44     ~ 655 2
40 NGC 5248 GiG 13 37 32.0145074088 +08 53 06.496982448   11.4       ~ 481 0
41 NGC 5247 GiG 13 38 03.0183262176 -17 53 02.645511252   10.77   9.96 10.5 ~ 212 0
42 NGC 5390 LIN 13 55 39.9385716624 +40 27 42.380606592   12.81 11.93 10.04   ~ 335 1
43 NGC 5850 LIN 15 07 07.6828131840 +01 32 39.513281352   11.5   10.79 11.1 ~ 302 1
44 NGC 5921 G 15 21 56.561 +05 04 13.94   12.7       ~ 267 0
45 NGC 5964 EmG 15 37 36.2103407496 +05 58 26.360661972   12.45 11.82 11.48 10.89 ~ 121 0
46 NGC 6140 G 16 20 58.162 +65 23 25.98   12.6       ~ 101 0
47 NGC 6384 G 17 32 24.2848390896 +07 03 37.531624968   13.2       ~ 295 0
48 NGC 6946 H2G 20 34 52.332 +60 09 13.24   10.5       ~ 2390 2
49 NGC 7479 Sy2 23 04 56.6432243448 +12 19 22.357387020 11.74 11.60 10.85 10.47 9.66 ~ 713 2
50 NGC 7741 GiP 23 43 54.375 +26 04 32.07 11.70 11.84 11.31     ~ 278 1

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2022.09.27-09:12:56

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