# 2001A&A...377..868B

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 Query : 2001A&A...377..868B

2001A&A...377..868B - Astronomy and Astrophysics, volume 377, 868-897 (2001/10-3)

Mass, linear momentum and kinetic energy of bipolar flows in protoplanetary nebulae.

BUJARRABAL V., CASTRO-CARRIZO A., ALCOLEA J. and SANCHEZ CONTRERAS C.

Abstract (from CDS):

We have studied the CO emission from protoplanetary nebulae (PPNe). Our sample is composed of 37 objects and includes, we think, all well identified PPNe detected in CO, together with the two yellow hypergiants emitting in CO and one young PN. We present a summary of the existing CO data, including accurate new observations of the 12CO and 13CO J=1-0 and J=2-1 lines in 16 objects. We identify in the nebulae a slowly expanding shell (represented in the spectra by a central core) and a fast outflow (corresponding to the line wings), that in the well studied PPNe is known to be bipolar. Excluding poor data, we end up with a sample of 32 sources (including the 16 observed by us); fast flows are detected in 28 of these nebulae, being absent in only 4. We present a method to estimate from these data the mass, scalar'' momentum and kinetic energy of the different components of the molecular outflows. We argue that the uncertainties of our method can hardly lead to significant overestimates of these parameters, although underestimates may be present in not well studied objects. The total nebular mass is often as high as ∼1M, and the mass-loss rate, that (presumably during the last stages of the AGB phase) originated the nebula, had typical values ∼10–4M/yr. The momentum corresponding to this mass ejection process in most studied nebulae is accurately coincident with the maximum momentum that radiation pressure, acting through absorption by dust grains, is able to supply (under expected conditions). We estimate that this high-efficiency process lasts about 1000-10000yr, after which the star has ejected a good fraction of its mass and the AGB phase ends. On the other hand, the fast molecular outflows, that have probably been accelerated by shock interaction with axial post-AGB jets, carry a significant fraction of the nebular mass, with a very high momentum (in most cases between 1037 and 1040g.cm/s) and very high kinetic energy (usually between 1044 and 1047erg). In general, yellow hypergiants and post-AGB objects with low initial mass show nebular masses and momenta that are, respectively, higher and lower than these values. We compare the momenta of the fast outflows with those that can be supplied by radiation pressure, taking into account the expected short acceleration times and some effects that can increase the momentum transfer. We find that in about 80% of PPNe, the fast molecular flows have too high momenta to be powered by radiation pressure. In some cases the momentum of the outflow is ∼1000 larger than that carried by radiation pressure; such high factors are difficult to explain even under exceptional conditions. Wind interaction is the basic phenomenon in the PN shaping from the former AGB envelopes; we conclude that this interaction systematically takes place along a dominant direction and that this process is not powered by radiation pressure. Due to the lack of theoretical studies, the possible momentum source remains a matter of speculation.

Abstract Copyright:

Journal keyword(s): stars: AGB and post-AGB - stars: circumstellar matter - radio-lines: stars - planetary nebulae

Simbad objects: 43

Full paper

 Number of rows : 43
N Identifier Otype ICRS (J2000)
RA
ICRS (J2000)
DEC
Mag U Mag B Mag V Mag R Mag I Sp type #ref
1850 - 2023
#notes
1 RAFGL 190 C* 01 17 51.378 +67 13 53.34           C-rich 68 0
2 IRAS 04296+3429 pA* 04 32 56.9743899192 +34 36 12.459816288   16.13 14.09 13.64 11.64 G0Ia 140 0
3 RAFGL 618 pA* 04 42 53.6242032600 +36 06 53.400902220   16.32   12.59   C-rich 988 0
4 HD 44179 pA* 06 19 58.2185496 -10 38 14.706068 9.51 9.33 9.02     B9Ib/II 749 0
5 HD 56126 pA* 07 16 10.2590823192 +09 59 47.954735376   9.20 8.32     F0/5Ia 312 0
6 PN M 1-16 PN 07 37 18.902 -09 38 47.96   12.7       ~ 180 0
7 OH 231.8 +4.2 OH* 07 42 16.947 -14 42 50.20           M10III+A 529 0
8 IRAS 09371+1212 pA* 09 39 53.96 +11 58 52.6           K7II/III 159 0
9 IRC +10216 C* 09 47 57.40632 +13 16 43.5648           C9,5e 2282 0
10 THA 35-II-27 PN 10 19 32.501 -60 13 29.48     12.5     B:Ie 88 0
11 MR 22 PN 10 21 33.85920 -58 05 47.6628           A2Ie 101 0
12 HD 101584 pA* 11 40 58.8051522552 -55 34 25.814696232 7.80 7.40 7.01     B8/9I/IIe 136 0
13 NAME Boomerang Nebula pA* 12 44 46.0915042296 -54 31 13.329460776       13.06   ~ 62 0
14 WRAY 15-1269 PN 14 59 53.4819371136 -54 18 07.521138792 12.12 12.17 11.64 11.63   [WC11] 241 0
15 PN Mz 3 PN 16 17 13.3915382496 -51 59 10.711893480   10.8 14.00     O9.5 345 0
16 PN M 2-9 PN 17 05 37.96152 -10 08 32.5068           ~ 516 0
17 CPD-56 8032 PN 17 09 00.9291677740 -56 54 47.868280757 11.24 11.48 11.04 11.067   [WC10] 261 0
18 RAFGL 6815S pA* 17 18 19.8040606320 -32 27 21.547417932           G2I 148 0
19 HD 161796 pA* 17 44 55.4694563472 +50 02 39.482823336 8.00 7.68 7.21 6.77 6.51 F3Ib 320 0
20 Hen 3-1475 PN 17 45 14.1819342984 -17 56 46.778166204       12.733   B7e 196 0
21 * 89 Her pA* 17 55 25.1883476136 +26 02 59.968457664 5.36 5.70 5.36 5.06 4.94 F2Ibp 403 0
22 OH 17.7 -2.0 pA* 18 30 30.703 -14 28 57.04           O-rich 139 1
23 V* R Sct cC* 18 47 28.9498974024 -05 42 18.542611800 8.30 6.67 5.20 4.14 3.37 K4/5pec 309 0
24 HD 179821 pA* 19 13 58.6082398776 +00 07 31.935181836 10.81 9.694 8.19     G4_0-Ia 235 0
25 IRC +10420 pA* 19 26 48.0979492536 +11 21 16.758531216   13.98 11.66     F8Ia+e 471 0
26 Hen 2-437 PN 19 32 57.6040534728 +26 52 43.087922580           ~ 93 1
27 Min 1-92 pA* 19 36 18.9295687968 +29 32 49.785288144 12.13 12.35 11.75 11.54   B0.5IV[e] 247 0
28 IRAS 19454+2920 C* 19 47 24.8045352600 +29 28 10.765023096           C-rich 46 0
29 HD 331319 pA* 19 49 29.5618298904 +31 27 16.248771432 10.4 9.91 9.32 9.24   F3Ibe 90 0
30 IRAS 19480+2504 pA? 19 50 08.2687941144 +25 12 00.936994068           C-rich 26 0
31 HD 187885 pA* 19 52 52.7033593752 -17 01 50.289441096   9.25 8.68 8.32   F2/6Ia 175 0
32 RAFGL 2477 S* 19 56 48.4423076904 +30 44 02.604494580   17.9 14.8 14.1   M6SIII 55 1
33 IRAS 20000+3239 LP* 20 01 59.5133268456 +32 47 32.799122916   16.13 13.39 11.80 10.32 ~ 76 0
34 IRAS 20028+3910 pA* 20 04 35.9834860344 +39 18 44.208893700           F3-7I 60 0
35 V* V1610 Cyg pA* 21 02 18.27 +36 41 37.0           F5Iae 863 1
36 NGC 7027 PN 21 07 01.571952 +42 14 10.47120   10.358 8.831 10.157   ~ 2421 1
37 [D75b] Em* 21-021 PN 21 29 58.4711786760 +51 04 00.323924520   15.66 14.20 13.89   O7(f)/[WC11] 237 0
38 V* V448 Lac pA* 22 24 31.4283564864 +43 43 10.978781916 11.22 10.61 9.69     F7I 104 0
39 HD 235858 pA* 22 29 10.3748806056 +54 51 06.344572284   11.40 9.52 8.47 7.34 G5Ia 245 0
40 IRAS 22574+6609 pA* 22 59 18.3496246536 +66 25 47.940897972       19.2   A1-6I 55 0
41 IRAS 23304+6147 pA* 23 32 44.7858431592 +62 03 49.090372272   15.36 12.99 12.23 10.50 G2Ia 111 0
42 IRAS 23321+6545 pA* 23 34 22.48104 +66 01 51.6756           C-rich 45 0
43 PN M 2-56 pA* 23 56 36.4049726352 +70 48 18.246610008   19.81   17.27 17.64 Be 91 0

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2023.03.30-07:55:40

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