2004A&A...417..115W


C.D.S. - SIMBAD4 rel 1.7 - 2019.11.15CET00:07:46

2004A&A...417..115W - Astronomy and Astrophysics, volume 417, 115-133 (2004/4-1)

The circumstellar environments of high-mass protostellar objects. I. Submillimetre continuum emission.

WILLIAMS S.J., FULLER G.A. and SRIDHARAN T.K.

Abstract (from CDS):

We present maps of the 850µm and 450µm continuum emission seen towards a sample of 68 high-mass protostellar candidates with luminosities ranging from 102.5L to ∼105L. Most of these candidate high-mass stars are in the earliest stages of evolution, and have not yet developed an ultra-compact HII region. We observe a variety of continuum emission morphologies, from compact symmetric sources through to multiple cores embedded in long filaments of emission. We find on average there is a 65% probability of an IRAS point-source having a companion detection at submillimetre wavelengths. The ratio of integrated flux to peak flux for our detections shows no strong dependence on distance, suggesting the emission we have observed is primarily from scale-free envelopes with power-law density structures. Assuming a near kinematic distance projection, the clumps we detect vary in mass from ∼1M to over 1000M, with a mean clump mass of 330M, column density of 9x1023cm–2 and diameter of ∼0.6pc. The high luminosity and low mass of the smallest clumps suggests they are accompanied by a minimal number of stellar companions, while the most massive clumps may be examples of young protogroups and protoclusters. We measure the spectral index of the dust emission (α) and the spectral index of the dust grain opacity (β) towards each object, finding clumps with morphologies suggestive of strong temperature gradients, and of grain growth in their dense inner regions. We find a mean value for β of 0.9, significantly smaller than observed towards UCHII regions.

Abstract Copyright:

Journal keyword(s): stars: formation - stars: circumstellar matter - ISM: clouds - ISM: dust, extinction

VizieR on-line data: <Available at CDS (J/A+A/417/115): table2.dat>

Nomenclature: Table 2: WFS NNN (Nos 1-112).

Simbad objects: 114

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Number of rows : 114

N Identifier Otype ICRS (J2000)
RA
ICRS (J2000)
DEC
Mag U Mag B Mag V Mag R Mag I Sp type #ref
1850 - 2020
#notes
1 WFS 1 smm 05 39 10.8 +35 45 16           ~ 2 0
2 WFS 2 smm 05 39 12.7 +35 45 51           ~ 2 0
3 WFS 3 smm 05 52 11.0 +27 00 34           ~ 3 0
4 WFS 5 smm 05 52 12.1 +26 59 38           ~ 2 0
5 WFS 4 smm 05 52 12.1 +27 00 11           ~ 3 0
6 GAL 192.16-03.82 HII 05 58 13.4 +16 32 00           ~ 133 1
7 WFS 7 smm 18 11 45.2 -17 30 43           ~ 2 0
8 WFS 8 smm 18 11 51.5 -17 31 34           ~ 3 0
9 AGAL G012.916+00.492 Y*O 18 11 53.8401 -17 29 51.097           ~ 21 0
10 WFS 10 smm 18 11 56.4 -17 30 07           ~ 1 0
11 WFS 11 smm 18 11 57.0 -17 29 34           ~ 2 0
12 AGAL G012.024-00.031 cor 18 12 01.9652 -18 31 57.165           ~ 27 0
13 IRAS 18102-1800 HII 18 13 12.2 -17 59 35           ~ 23 0
14 IRAS 18151-1208 Y*O 18 17 58.114 -12 07 24.84           ~ 99 0
15 IRAS 18159-1550 HII 18 18 47.30 -15 48 57.9           ~ 26 0
16 IRAS 18182-1433 mul 18 21 07.9 -14 31 53           ~ 95 0
17 OH 16.59 -0.05 cor 18 21 09.2137 -14 31 45.484           ~ 112 0
18 [BSM2002] 18223-1243 1 cor 18 25 10.53 -12 42 25.8           ~ 9 0
19 IRAS 18247-1147 Y*O 18 27 31.9549 -11 45 53.078           ~ 35 0
20 IRAS 18264-1152 cor 18 29 14.6846 -11 50 23.966           ~ 70 1
21 WFS 20 smm 18 30 02.2 -12 15 40           ~ 2 0
22 WFS 21 smm 18 30 03.2 -12 15 11           ~ 2 0
23 WFS 22 smm 18 31 43.4 -09 22 26           ~ 8 0
24 WFS 23 cor 18 31 43.93 -09 22 13.3           ~ 6 0
25 WFS 24 smm 18 33 17.3 -08 33 28           ~ 2 0
26 IRAS 18306-0835 cor 18 33 23.8651 -08 33 24.197           ~ 36 0
27 WFS 26 smm 18 33 29.8 -08 38 33           ~ 1 0
28 WFS 27 smm 18 33 32.9 -08 39 09           ~ 1 0
29 IRAS 18310-0825 HII 18 33 47.9 -08 23 52           ~ 30 0
30 RAFGL 5515 HII 18 36 29.0 -07 40 33           ~ 28 0
31 IRAS 18345-0641 cor 18 37 17.4520 -06 38 30.992           ~ 42 0
32 WFS 31 smm 18 37 26.4 -06 13 40           ~ 1 0
33 WFS 32 smm 18 37 27.5 -06 14 05           ~ 1 0
34 WFS 33 smm 18 37 30.5 -06 14 13           ~ 2 0
35 [AAJ2015] G026.594-00.026 HII 18 39 55.9 -05 38 45           ~ 31 1
36 IRAS 18385-0512 cor 18 41 13.7583 -05 08 55.892           ~ 46 1
37 IRAS 18426-0204 HII 18 45 12.8 -02 01 12           ~ 17 0
38 IRAS 18431-0312 HII 18 45 45.5 -03 09 21           ~ 20 0
39 WFS 38 smm 18 46 21.8 -02 12 20           ~ 2 0
40 WFS 39 smm 18 46 22.4 -02 14 16           ~ 2 0
41 WFS 40 smm 18 46 23.0 -02 15 16           ~ 1 0
42 WFS 41 smm 18 46 33.3 -01 44 52           ~ 2 0
43 IRAS 18440-0148 cor 18 46 36.56 -01 45 21.2           ~ 43 0
44 IRAS 18445-0222 HII 18 47 10.6 -02 19 08           ~ 26 0
45 WFS 44 smm 18 47 20.2 -02 25 28           ~ 1 0
46 WFS 45 smm 18 47 21.5 -02 26 11           ~ 1 0
47 WFS 46 smm 18 47 23.5 -02 26 16           ~ 1 0
48 WFS 47 smm 18 47 26.1 -02 26 57           ~ 1 0
49 AGAL G030.784-00.021 Y*O 18 47 35.6 -01 55 16           ~ 11 0
50 WFS 49 smm 18 47 38.7 -01 55 10           ~ 1 0
51 IRAS 18454-0136 HII 18 48 02.1 -01 33 30           ~ 19 0
52 WFS 51 smm 18 48 37.8 -03 03 48           ~ 2 0
53 WFS 52 smm 18 48 39.7 -03 04 07           ~ 1 0
54 WFS 53 smm 18 48 40.4 -03 03 57           ~ 1 0
55 IRAS 18470-0044 cor 18 49 37.81 -00 41 01.1           ~ 29 0
56 WFS 55 smm 18 49 52.4 -00 18 59           ~ 2 0
57 WFS 56 smm 18 49 53.8 -00 19 48           ~ 1 0
58 WFS 57 smm 18 51 24.4 +00 04 39           ~ 2 0
59 WFS 58 smm 18 51 25.5 +00 04 11           ~ 2 0
60 WFS 59 smm 18 54 40.6 +01 38 05           ~ 4 0
61 WFS 60 smm 18 54 44.4 +01 37 00           ~ 2 0
62 IRAS 18530+0215 cor 18 55 33.7 +02 19 09           ~ 36 0
63 WFS 62 smm 18 56 36.6 +02 24 45           ~ 2 0
64 WFS 63 smm 18 56 40.1 +02 25 30           ~ 2 0
65 IRAS 18553+0414 cor 18 57 53.37 +04 18 15.7           ~ 28 0
66 IRAS 18566+0408 cor 18 59 10.3479 +04 12 18.220           ~ 114 1
67 IRAS 19012+0536 cor 19 03 46.0583 +05 40 43.552           ~ 46 1
68 2MASS J19060163+0646366 Y*O 19 06 01.8634 +06 46 37.283           ~ 55 1
69 WFS 68 smm 19 09 53.4 +07 57 12           ~ 2 0
70 WFS 69 smm 19 09 53.9 +07 56 55           ~ 2 0
71 WFS 70 smm 19 19 48.6 +14 02 26           ~ 3 1
72 WFS 71 smm 19 19 48.8 +14 02 46           ~ 3 1
73 IRAS 19217+1651 cor 19 23 58.77 +16 57 44.8           ~ 32 0
74 AGAL G049.669-00.457 Y*O 19 24 19.8014 +14 38 05.716           ~ 35 0
75 IRAS 19266+1745 HII 19 28 55.5 +17 52 00           ~ 26 0
76 WFS 75 smm 19 30 23.1 +18 20 22           ~ 2 0
77 AGAL G053.632+00.014 Y*O 19 30 29.542 +18 20 31.74           ~ 8 0
78 NGC 6820 GNe 19 42 27.930 +23 05 14.75       14.56   ~ 46 0
79 WFS 78 smm 19 43 10.6 +23 45 02           ~ 2 0
80 MSX6C G059.7831+00.0648 Y*O 19 43 11.3234 +23 44 20.811           ~ 130 0
81 IRAS 19410+2336 SFR 19 43 11.5 +23 44 06           ~ 138 0
82 IRAS 19411+2306 cor 19 43 17.9602116486 +23 14 01.630109213           ~ 39 0
83 WFS 81 smm 19 43 26.3 +23 40 26           ~ 2 0
84 WFS 82 smm 19 43 29.0 +23 40 19           ~ 2 0
85 WFS 83 smm 19 49 10.1 +26 49 10           ~ 2 0
86 WFS 84 smm 19 49 11.8 +26 49 38           ~ 2 0
87 IRAS 20051+3435 * 20 07 04.5 +34 44 45           ~ 28 0
88 WFS 86 smm 20 10 12.6 +27 29 13           ~ 2 0
89 WFS 87 smm 20 10 13.3 +27 28 21           ~ 2 0
90 WFS 88 smm 20 10 16.0 +27 28 12           ~ 2 0
91 WFS 89 smm 20 10 18.7 +27 27 18           ~ 2 0
92 IRAS 20126+4104 Y*O 20 14 25.8816186803 +41 13 36.869078243           B2.5-B0.5 388 0
93 WFS 91 smm 20 22 20.0 +39 58 21           ~ 2 0
94 WFS 92 smm 20 22 24.9 +39 57 55           ~ 2 0
95 IRAS 20216+4107 cor 20 23 23.855 +41 17 40.49           ~ 53 0
96 IRAS 20293+3952 HII 20 31 11.040 +40 03 10.69           ~ 66 0
97 IRAS 20319+3958 HII 20 33 49.246 +40 08 44.19           ~ 40 1
98 WFS 96 smm 20 34 58.7 +41 34 46           ~ 2 0
99 WFS 97 smm 20 35 01.1 +41 34 59           ~ 2 0
100 WFS 98 smm 20 36 03.4 +41 39 44           ~ 2 0
101 WFS 99 smm 20 36 06.3 +41 39 59           ~ 2 0
102 WFS 100 smm 20 36 08.1 +41 39 58           ~ 2 0
103 IRAS 22134+5834 cor 22 15 09.51 +58 49 06.0           ~ 64 0
104 WFS 102 smm 22 57 04.3 +62 37 44           ~ 2 0
105 WFS 103 smm 22 57 07.4 +62 37 29           ~ 2 0
106 WFS 104 smm 22 57 11.6 +62 36 46           ~ 2 0
107 WFS 105 smm 22 58 55.3 +59 28 42           ~ 1 0
108 WFS 106 smm 22 58 59.2 +59 27 41           ~ 1 0
109 WFS 107 smm 22 59 05.0 +59 28 23           ~ 2 0
110 IRAS 23033+5951 cor 23 05 25.31 +60 08 06.3           B0.5 74 0
111 IRAS 23139+5939 MoC 23 16 10.03 +59 55 31.3           ~ 69 1
112 IRAS 23151+5912 HII 23 17 21.0 +59 28 49           ~ 90 0
113 WFS 111 smm 23 57 02.1 +65 24 38           ~ 2 0
114 WFS 112 smm 23 57 06.4 +65 24 49           ~ 2 0

    Equat.    Gal    SGal    Ecl

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2019.11.15-00:07:46

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