Query : 2004A&A...424..841R

2004A&A...424..841R - Astronomy and Astrophysics, volume 424, 841-855 (2004/9-4)

Observing Mkn 421 with XMM-Newton: The EPIC-PN point of view.


Abstract (from CDS):

We present three observations (four exposures) of Mkn 421 performed by XMM-Newton in November and December 2002, concentrating on the EPIC-PN camera data. The X-ray spectra were soft and steepened toward high energies. The source was highly variable and the hardness ratio plots displayed a clear harder-when-stronger correlation. During two complete flares the source showed strong spectral evolution: a hardness ratio and a time resolved spectral analysis revealed both clockwise and counterclockwise rotating loop patterns, suggesting the presence of temporal lags between different energy band variations. We confirmed this result and estimated the delay with a cross-correlation analysis performed on the single flares, discussing also variability patterns that could reproduce the asymmetry seen in the cross-correlation function. We verified our findings by reproducing the two flares with analytical models. We obtained consistent results: during one flare, Mkn 421 displayed soft lags, while in the other case it showed hard lags. In both cases, the delay increases with the energy difference between the light curves. Finally, we discuss the presence and the frequency dependence of the temporal lags as an effect of particle acceleration, cooling and escape timescales, showing that our data are consistent with this picture.

Abstract Copyright:

Journal keyword(s): galaxies: BL Lacertae objects: general - X-rays: galaxies - galaxies: BL Lacertae objects: individual: Mkn 421

Simbad objects: 3

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Number of rows : 3
N Identifier Otype ICRS (J2000)
ICRS (J2000)
Mag U Mag B Mag V Mag R Mag I Sp type #ref
1850 - 2023
1 Mrk 421 BLL 11 04 27.3140835504 +38 12 31.798495872   13.50 12.90 8.31   ~ 2575 1
2 QSO B2155-304 BLL 21 58 52.0652249880 -30 13 32.118447792   13.36 13.09 12.62   ~ 1677 1
3 QSO B2344+514 BLL 23 47 04.8372110928 +51 42 17.877513168     15.50 10.7   ~ 429 0

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