2005A&A...430..115H


C.D.S. - SIMBAD4 rel 1.7 - 2020.02.22CET12:03:51

2005A&A...430..115H - Astronomy and Astrophysics, volume 430, 115-128 (2005/1-4)

Did most present-day spirals form during the last 8 Gyr? A formation history with violent episodes revealed by panchromatic observations.

HAMMER F., FLORES H., ELBAZ D., ZHENG X.Z., LIANG Y.C. and CESARSKY C.

Abstract (from CDS):

Studies of distant galaxies have shown that ellipticals and large spirals (Schade et al., 1999ApJ...525...31S; Lilly et al., 1998ApJ...500...75L) were already in place 8Gyr ago, leading to a very modest recent star formation (Brinchmann & Ellis, 2000ApJ...536L..77B) in intermediate mass galaxies (3-30x1010M). This is challenged by a recent analysis (Heavens et al., 2004Natur.428..625H) of the fossil record of the stellar populations of ∼105 nearby galaxies, which shows that intermediate mass galaxies formed or assembled the bulk of their stars 4 to 8Gyr ago. Here we present direct observational evidence supporting this findings from a long term, multi-wavelength study of 195 z>0.4 intermediate mass galaxies, mostly selected from the Canada France Redshift Survey (CFRS). We show that recent and efficient star formation is revealed at IR wavelengths since ∼15% of intermediate mass galaxies at z>0.4 are indeed luminous IR galaxies (LIRGs), a phenomenon far more common than in the local Universe. The star formation in LIRGs is sufficient in itself to produce 38% of the total stellar mass of intermediate mass galaxies and then to account for most of the reported stellar mass formation since z=1. Observations of distant galaxies have also the potential to resolve their star formation and mass assembly histories. The high occurrence of LIRGs is easily understood only if they correspond to episodic peaks of star formation, during which galaxies are reddened through short IREs (infrared episodes). We estimate that each galaxy should experience 4 to 5x(τIRE/0.1Gyr)–1 IREs from z=1 to z=0.4, τIRE being the characteristic timescale. An efficient and episodic star formation is further supported by the luminosity-metallicity relation of z∼0.7 emission line galaxies, which we find to be on average metal deficient by a factor of ∼2 when compared to those of local spirals. We then examine how galaxy IREs can be related to the emergence at high redshift of the abundant population of galaxies with small size (but not with small mass), blue core and many irregularities. We show that recent merging and gas infall naturally explain both morphological changes and episodic star formation history in a hierarchical galaxy formation frame. We propose a simple scenario in which 75±25% of intermediate mass spirals have recently experienced their last major merger event, leading to a drastic reshaping of their bulges and disks during the last 8 Gyr. It links in a simple manner distant and local galaxies, and gives account of the simultaneous decreases during that period, of the cosmic star formation density, of the merger rate, and of the number densities of LIRGs, compact and irregular galaxies, while the densities of ellipticals and large spirals are essentially unaffected. It predicts that 42, 22 and 36% of the IR (episodic) star formation density is related to major mergers, minor mergers and gas infall, respectively.

Abstract Copyright:

Journal keyword(s): galaxies: formation - galaxies: structure - infrared: galaxies - galaxies: starburst - galaxies: spiral

VizieR on-line data: <Available at CDS (J/A+A/430/115): table1.dat>

Simbad objects: 174

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Number of rows : 174

N Identifier Otype ICRS (J2000)
RA
ICRS (J2000)
DEC
Mag U Mag B Mag V Mag R Mag I Sp type #ref
1850 - 2020
#notes
1 2SLAQ J000228.90-004142.8 G 00 02 28.912 -00 41 42.88           ~ 5 0
2 CFRS 00.0564 G 00 02 36.77 -00 38 07.0           ~ 6 0
3 CFRS 00.1175 G 00 02 41.19 -00 44 58.0           ~ 3 0
4 CFRS 00.0763 ? 00 02 42.71 -00 41 43.0           ~ 2 0
5 M 31 G 00 42 44.330 +41 16 07.50 4.86 4.36 3.44     ~ 10708 1
6 GOODS J030225.28+001325.1 EmG 03 02 25.285 +00 13 25.13   23.39 22.91   22.00 ~ 14 0
7 [LHF2004] CFRS 33 EmG 03 02 26.86 +00 10 55.0         22.01 ~ 5 0
8 [LHF2004] CFRS 31 EmG 03 02 27.20 +00 13 56.0         20.96 ~ 7 0
9 CFRS 03.0350 G 03 02 27.53 +00 07 29.0           ~ 5 0
10 [LHF2004] CFRS 32 EmG 03 02 27.53 +00 10 57.0         22.31 ~ 5 0
11 GOODS J030228.72+001333.9 G 03 02 28.716 +00 13 33.94           ~ 8 0
12 CFRS 03.0327 G 03 02 29.18 +00 06 21.0           ~ 9 0
13 [LHF2004] CFRS 29 EmG 03 02 29.41 +00 12 59.0         21.16 ~ 9 0
14 CFRS 03.0032 ? 03 02 29.68 +00 13 41.0           ~ 4 0
15 [LHF2004] CFRS 26 EmG 03 02 31.53 +00 14 03.3         23.29 ~ 3 0
16 GOODS J030232.16+000639.1 G 03 02 32.159 +00 06 39.14   22.41 22.00     ~ 18 0
17 CFRS 03.0615 G 03 02 32.41 +00 13 42.0           ~ 8 0
18 [LHF2004] CFRS 25 EmG 03 02 33.14 +00 11 05.2         21.37 ~ 5 0
19 [VV96] J030233.2+001331 QSO 03 02 33.185 +00 13 31.09   22.503 21.486   20.446 ~ 10 0
20 [WEG2004] 3h 77 QSO 03 02 33.744 +00 11 37.73   22.947 22.234   21.311 ~ 4 0
21 CFRS 03.0595 G 03 02 33.81 +00 12 48.0           ~ 11 0
22 [LHF2004] CFRS 22 EmG 03 02 34.41 +00 13 31.0         22.18 ~ 9 0
23 CFRS 03.0570 G 03 02 35.58 +00 13 39.0           ~ 12 0
24 CFRS 03.0560 G 03 02 36.00 +00 12 23.0           ~ 8 0
25 CFRS 03.0844 G 03 02 36.79 +00 10 43.0           ~ 4 0
26 CFRS 03.0837 G 03 02 37.05 +00 10 22.0           ~ 4 0
27 GOODS J030238.74+000611.5 G 03 02 38.736 +00 06 11.49           ~ 14 0
28 [LHF2004] CFRS 16 EmG 03 02 38.80 +00 14 17.0         21.47 ~ 6 0
29 CFRS 03.0528 G 03 02 39.10 +00 13 16.0           ~ 6 0
30 [LHF2004] CFRS 17 EmG 03 02 39.18 +00 10 35.0         22.37 ~ 5 0
31 GOODS J030239.38+001327.1 G 03 02 39.375 +00 13 27.14           ~ 16 0
32 CFRS 03.0767 ? 03 02 39.42 +00 10 25.0           ~ 4 0
33 [LHF2004] CFRS 15 EmG 03 02 39.72 +00 13 21.0         21.81 ~ 8 0
34 [LHF2004] CFRS 14 EmG 03 02 40.44 +00 14 03.0         20.95 ~ 8 0
35 GOODS J030240.45+001359.4 G 03 02 40.450 +00 13 59.36           ~ 10 0
36 CFRS 03.0728 G 03 02 41.26 +00 08 55.0           ~ 5 0
37 CFRS 03.0717 G 03 02 42.28 +00 12 04.0           ~ 8 0
38 CFRS 03.0480 G 03 02 42.92 +00 13 24.0           ~ 7 0
39 [LHF2004] CFRS 11 EmG 03 02 43.38 +00 12 09.5         21.85 ~ 6 0
40 CFRS 03.1540 G 03 02 43.65 +00 12 10.0           ~ 11 0
41 [LHF2004] CFRS 10 EmG 03 02 44.57 +00 12 20.0         20.64 ~ 10 0
42 CFRS 03.0442 G 03 02 44.89 +00 13 45.0           ~ 7 0
43 GOODS J030245.67+001027.9 G 03 02 45.629 +00 10 27.95           ~ 13 0
44 [LHF2004] CFRS 8 EmG 03 02 46.29 +00 13 53.0         21.21 ~ 9 0
45 GOODS J030246.94+001032.6 G 03 02 46.942 +00 10 32.63           ~ 7 0
46 [LHF2004] CFRS 7 G 03 02 47.3464 +00 13 08.655         21.67 ~ 5 0
47 GOODS J030248.41+000916.5 G 03 02 48.407 +00 09 16.54           ~ 7 0
48 GOODS J030249.10+001002.1 EmG 03 02 49.099 +00 10 02.13   22.734 22.143   20.483 ~ 20 0
49 CFRS 03.1345 G 03 02 49.22 +00 10 02.0           ~ 6 0
50 CFRS 03.1175 G 03 02 49.81 +00 12 41.0           ~ 3 0
51 CFRS 03.1318 G 03 02 50.92 +00 10 03.0           ~ 4 0
52 GOODS J030252.03+001033.4 EmG 03 02 52.028 +00 10 33.36   23.213 22.220   19.841 ~ 18 0
53 CFRS 03.1242 ? 03 02 56.61 +00 10 49.0           ~ 6 0
54 [LHF2004] UDSF 31 EmG 03 12 44.00 -55 03 21.0       22.39   ~ 4 0
55 [LHF2004] UDSF 29 G 03 12 50.20 -55 02 59.0           ~ 3 0
56 [LHF2004] UDSF 28 EmG 03 12 51.80 -55 02 57.0       21.31   ~ 4 0
57 [LHF2004] UDSF 32 EmG 03 12 53.3 -55 01 43       23.16   ~ 2 0
58 [LHF2004] UDSF 26b EmG 03 12 57.5 -55 02 48       21.16   ~ 2 0
59 [LHF2004] UDSF 26a EmG 03 12 58.0 -55 02 53       23.07   ~ 2 0
60 [LHF2004] UDSF 21 EmG 03 13 04.5 -55 03 12       21.78   ~ 2 0
61 [LHF2004] UDSF 24 EmG 03 13 04.8 -55 02 24       21.92   ~ 3 0
62 [LHF2004] UDSF 25 EmG 03 13 07.3 -55 01 56       23.32   ~ 3 0
63 [LHF2004] UDSF 12 EmG 03 13 07.70 -55 05 26.0       22.45   ~ 4 0
64 [LHF2004] UDSF 16 EmG 03 13 08.0 -55 04 18       20.39   ~ 6 0
65 [LHF2004] UDSF 17 EmG 03 13 08.60 -55 03 57.0       21.45   ~ 4 0
66 [LHF2004] UDSF 14 EmG 03 13 09.7 -55 04 33       23.08   ~ 3 0
67 [LHF2004] UDSF 19 EmG 03 13 09.80 -55 03 08.0       20.68   ~ 4 0
68 [LHF2004] UDSF 8 EmG 03 13 14.2 -55 05 37       22.30   ~ 3 0
69 [LHF2004] UDSF 13 EmG 03 13 14.2 -55 04 21       23.54   ~ 3 0
70 [LHF2004] UDSF 18 EmG 03 13 16.50 -55 02 27.0       21.42   ~ 3 0
71 [LHF2004] UDSF 7 EmG 03 13 17.3 -55 05 16       22.37   ~ 4 0
72 [LHF2004] UDSF 2 EmG 03 13 23.3 -55 05 15       22.57   ~ 3 0
73 [LHF2004] UDSF 1 EmG 03 13 27.6 -55 05 53       20.41   ~ 3 0
74 [LHF2004] UDSF 4 EmG 03 13 28.5 -55 04 45       22.99   ~ 3 0
75 [LHF2004] UDSF 6 EmG 03 13 30.20 -55 04 04.0       21.91   ~ 3 0
76 [LHF2004] UDSF 3 EmG 03 13 33.6 -55 04 27       21.54   ~ 4 0
77 NAME Hubble Deep Field reg 12 36 49.5 +62 12 58           ~ 1818 1
78 3XMM J141724.5+523025 Sy1 14 17 24.5948370010 +52 30 24.772295047   20.226 20.382 19.992 19.664 ~ 39 0
79 CFRS 14.1554 IR 14 17 24.7 +52 26 56           ~ 3 0
80 EGSIRAC J141726.30+523031.1 AGN 14 17 26.30318 +52 30 31.1223   23.10   22.12 21.43 ~ 7 0
81 [HCS2000] NIC J141727.28+522637.4 EmG 14 17 27.473 +52 26 38.77           ~ 8 0
82 EGSIRAC J141727.55+522645.7 EmG 14 17 27.58397 +52 26 45.4063   23.30 22.70 22.74 21.92 ~ 19 0
83 EGSIRAC J141728.76+522738.2 G 14 17 28.76373 +52 27 38.1707   24.05 22.04 21.61 20.921 ~ 13 0
84 CFRS 14.1444 G 14 17 29.58 +52 31 59.9           ~ 5 0
85 CFRS 14.1395 G 14 17 31.746 +52 26 05.46           ~ 10 0
86 CFRS 14.1386 G 14 17 32.07 +52 29 31.7   23.11 22.57     ~ 8 0
87 EGSIRAC J141733.50+522921.5 G 14 17 33.49828 +52 29 21.5857   22.76   21.64 21.29 ~ 12 0
88 EGSIRAC J141733.54+522649.5 G 14 17 33.54091 +52 26 49.5731   23.96   22.95 21.94 ~ 13 0
89 EGSIRAC J141734.86+522752.0 G 14 17 34.86751 +52 27 52.2100   21.668   20.079 19.472 ~ 16 0
90 EGSIRAC J141735.72+522646.0 G 14 17 35.72443 +52 26 46.0560   24.04 21.53 21.38 19.971 ~ 58 1
91 [MMN2007] A1 gLS 14 17 35.9 +52 26 46     21.53   19.69 ~ 76 0
92 EGSIRAC J141737.24+522650.5 G 14 17 37.26038 +52 26 50.5619   23.75   22.17 20.95 ~ 19 0
93 CFRS 14.1232 IR 14 17 39.3 +52 28 46           ~ 3 0
94 DEEP-GSS 062-7929 G 14 17 40.50215 +52 29 49.3846   23.44   22.59 21.97 ~ 14 0
95 EGSIRAC J141740.53+522714.0 G 14 17 40.53114 +52 27 14.0456   23.10   21.68 20.84 ~ 22 0
96 CFRS 14.1179 G 14 17 40.83 +52 28 36.4           ~ 7 0
97 NAME SMM J141741.90+522823.6 Sy2 14 17 41.87874 +52 28 23.4232   23.62 22.945 21.56 20.417 ~ 54 0
98 EGSIRAC J141742.11+522646.2 EmG 14 17 42.10661 +52 26 46.2085   23.36   22.23 21.54 ~ 13 0
99 NAME SMM J141742.20+523026.0 G 14 17 42.11617 +52 30 25.6471   21.959 21.6 20.829 20.183 ~ 45 0
100 EGSIRAC J141742.17+522959.5 G 14 17 42.16416 +52 29 59.5841   22.80   22.27 21.95 ~ 11 0
101 CFRS 14.1129 G 14 17 42.635 +52 28 45.32           ~ 9 1
102 EGSIRAC J141743.80+523021.6 G 14 17 43.79527 +52 30 21.6207   23.09   22.20 21.80 ~ 13 0
103 [TCB2007] 12007894 G 14 17 44.218 +52 28 44.33           ~ 10 0
104 EGSIRAC J141745.03+522803.0 Sy2 14 17 45.03416 +52 28 02.9910   20.003   18.714 18.199 ~ 25 1
105 DEEP-GSS 073-3539 G 14 17 45.344 +52 29 08.75           ~ 12 0
106 EGSIRAC J141745.60+523006.9 G 14 17 45.60996 +52 30 06.9214   22.88   21.69 21.20 ~ 11 0
107 DEEP2-GRS 12007878 AGN 14 17 45.94454 +52 30 32.4816   25.535 24.336 22.94 21.43 ~ 35 0
108 EGSIRAC J141746.26+523043.7 G 14 17 46.27054 +52 30 43.7016   22.80   21.69 21.29 ~ 12 0
109 EGSIRAC J141747.19+522910.5 G 14 17 47.19181 +52 29 10.5415   22.82   20.958 20.359 ~ 9 1
110 EGSIRAC J141747.82+523047.8 G 14 17 47.83506 +52 30 47.7944   22.211   21.45 21.04 ~ 17 0
111 [HI2001] GSS052-6543 G 14 17 48.208 +52 31 17.67     22.26     ~ 13 0
112 [LNG2009] egs-0432 AGN 14 17 49.21722 +52 28 03.3215   26.6 23.40 23.08 21.66 ~ 23 0
113 EGSIRAC J141750.61+522745.9 G 14 17 50.60624 +52 27 46.0004   22.14   21.62 21.42 ~ 12 0
114 [TCB2007] 12007933 G 14 17 52.026 +52 29 29.33     23.09     ~ 19 0
115 [TCB2007] 12012183 G 14 17 52.205 +52 30 52.49           ~ 12 0
116 15V 40 G 14 17 53.089 +52 31 40.00           ~ 6 0
117 CFRS 14.0746 G 14 17 55.626 +52 31 52.39     20.97     ~ 13 0
118 15V 42 G 14 17 56.151 +52 27 59.59           ~ 8 0
119 CFRS 14.0725 G 14 17 56.334 +52 30 43.87           ~ 10 0
120 CFRS 14.0711 G 14 17 56.6 +52 31 59           ~ 3 0
121 CFRS 14.0697 ? 14 17 57.44 +52 27 13.7           ~ 3 0
122 [RRB2009] IRAC 029343 AGN 14 17 58.143 +52 31 33.97       23.77   ~ 10 0
123 EGSIRAC J141758.54+522712.6 G 14 17 58.53049 +52 27 12.8384   23.17   21.62 20.76 ~ 12 0
124 XDEEP2 egs8-0095 AGN 14 17 58.948 +52 31 39.12   24.151 23.625 22.72 21.851 ~ 18 0
125 EGSIRAC J141801.01+523238.8 G 14 18 01.01398 +52 32 38.6383   22.39   21.96 21.38 ~ 10 0
126 EGSIRAC J141801.80+522729.5 G 14 18 01.78644 +52 27 29.6512   22.76   21.28 20.30 ~ 7 0
127 CFRS 14.0557 IR 14 18 02.7 +52 28 00           ~ 3 0
128 DEEP-GSS 054-7049 G 14 18 03.54641 +52 30 22.5412   21.89   21.48 20.86 ~ 20 0
129 EGSIRAC J141805.91+522923.2 G 14 18 05.85036 +52 29 22.6097   22.80   21.76 21.37 ~ 9 0
130 CFRS 14.0446 G 14 18 07.1 +52 28 37           ~ 3 0
131 CFRS 14.0422 G 14 18 08.165 +52 31 17.48           ~ 8 0
132 EGSIRAC J141808.48+523241.5 G 14 18 08.48066 +52 32 41.5212   22.42   21.91 21.47 ~ 9 0
133 EGSIRAC J141809.32+523014.0 AGN 14 18 09.30736 +52 30 14.1729   21.555 21.47 20.571 20.151 ~ 15 0
134 CFRS 14.0302 G 14 18 12.3 +52 29 45           ~ 3 0
135 EGSIRAC J141815.96+523036.3 G 14 18 15.94 +52 30 36.5   23.05   20.308 19.466 ~ 14 0
136 GOODS J221743.08+001508.3 G 22 17 43.081 +00 15 07.67         21.758 ~ 15 0
137 GOODS J221746.48+001653.5 G 22 17 46.458 +00 16 53.03   22.51 21.92     ~ 16 0
138 SDSS J221748.48+001759.8 G 22 17 48.484 +00 17 59.88       22.5 21.574 ~ 7 0
139 VVDS 220579786 G 22 17 50.05 +00 17 31.5         21.823 ~ 11 0
140 CFRS 22.0637 G 22 17 54.01 +00 21 26.7           ~ 10 0
141 GOODS J221754.56+001900.3 G 22 17 54.573 +00 18 59.52           ~ 5 0
142 SDSS J221755.25+001656.4 G 22 17 55.258 +00 16 56.43   22.99 22.57 22.5 21.455 ~ 13 0
143 CFRS 22.0576 G 22 17 55.99 +00 16 57.1   23.35 22.89     ~ 11 0
144 CFRS 22.0429 G 22 18 00.05 +00 17 53.2   24.02 23.46     ~ 13 0
145 CFRS 22.0344 G 22 18 02.15 +00 17 38.6           ~ 5 0
146 CFRS 22.0242 G 22 18 04.89 +00 18 04.1           ~ 4 0
147 CFRS 14.1524 G ~ ~           ~ 5 0
148 CFRS 22.1070 ? ~ ~           ~ 2 0
149 CFRS 22.0721 ? ~ ~           ~ 2 0
150 CFRS 22.0626 ? ~ ~           ~ 2 0
151 CFRS 22.0500 ? ~ ~           ~ 1 0
152 CFRS 22.0355 ? ~ ~           ~ 1 0
153 CFRS 14.1620 ? ~ ~           ~ 2 0
154 CFRS 14.1601 ? ~ ~           ~ 2 0
155 CFRS 14.1506 ? ~ ~           ~ 2 0
156 CFRS 14.1477 ? ~ ~           ~ 2 0
157 CFRS 14.1427 ? ~ ~           ~ 3 0
158 CFRS 14.1412 ? ~ ~           ~ 2 0
159 CFRS 14.1326 ? ~ ~           ~ 2 0
160 CFRS 14.1223 ? ~ ~           ~ 2 0
161 CFRS 14.1213 ? ~ ~           ~ 2 0
162 CFRS 14.1164 ? ~ ~           ~ 3 0
163 CFRS 14.1008 ? ~ ~           ~ 3 0
164 CFRS 14.0964 ? ~ ~           ~ 2 0
165 CFRS 14.0913 ? ~ ~           ~ 2 0
166 CFRS 14.0700 ? ~ ~           ~ 3 0
167 CFRS 00.1721 ? ~ ~           ~ 2 0
168 CFRS 00.0868 ? ~ ~           ~ 1 0
169 CFRS 00.0141 ? ~ ~           ~ 2 0
170 CFRS 14.1415 G ~ ~           ~ 3 0
171 CFRS 14.1350 G ~ ~           ~ 2 0
172 CFRS 14.1305 G ~ ~           ~ 2 0
173 CFRS 14.0814 G ~ ~           ~ 2 0
174 CFRS 14.0400 IR ~ ~           ~ 4 0

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2020.02.22-12:03:51

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