2006A&A...445...93D


C.D.S. - SIMBAD4 rel 1.7 - 2020.08.09CEST07:49:33

2006A&A...445...93D - Astronomy and Astrophysics, volume 445, 93-113 (2006/1-1)

A new comprehensive set of elemental abundances in DLAs. II. Data analysis and chemical variation studies.

DESSAUGES-ZAVADSKY M., PROCHASKA J.X., D'ODORICO S., CALURA F. and MATTEUCCI F.

Abstract (from CDS):

We present new, comprehensive sets of elemental abundances for seven damped Lyα systems (DLAs) in the redshift range zabs=1.8-2.5. These were derived from UVES/VLT spectra combined with existing HIRES/Keck spectra. We detected 54 metal-line transitions, and obtained the column density measurements of 30 ions from 22 elements, - B, C, N, O, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, Ar, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ge, As, Kr. Together with the four DLAs analyzed in Dessauges-Zavadsky et al. (2004A&A...416...79D), we have a sample of eleven DLA galaxies with uniquely comprehensive and homogeneous abundance measurements. These observations allow one to study in detail the abundance patterns of a wide range of elements and the chemical variations in the interstellar medium of galaxies outside the Local Group. Comparing the gas-phase abundance ratios of these high redshift galaxies, we found that they show low rms dispersions, reaching only up 2-3 times the statistical errors for the majority of elements. This uniformity is remarkable given that the quasar sightlines cross gaseous regions with Hi column densities spanning over one order of magnitude and metallicities ranging from 1/55 to 1/5 solar. The uniformity is also remarkable since DLAs are expected (and observed at low redshift) to be associated with a wide range of galaxy types. This implies the respective star formation histories seem to have conspired to yield one set of relative abundances. We examined the gas-phase abundance patterns of interstellar medium ``clouds'' within the DLA galaxies detected along the velocity profiles. By considering all the clouds of all the DLAs studied together, we observe a high dispersion in several abundance ratios, indicating that chemical variations seem to be more confined to individual clouds within the DLA galaxies than to integrated profiles. We found unambiguous correlations between [Si/Fe], [S/Fe] and [S/Si] versus [Zn/Fe], and anti-correlations between [Si/Zn] and [S/Zn] versus [Zn/Fe]. These trends are primarily the result of differential dust depletion effects, which also explain the cloud abundance ratio dispersion. The signature of the nucleosynthesis enrichment contribution is observed in the [α/Fe,Zn] ratios at low dust depletion levels, 0≤[Zn/Fe]≤ 0.2, and is characterized by an α-enhancement in individual clouds. Quite surprisingly, however, while the [Si/Fe] ratios are supersolar in clouds with low depletion level, the [S/Zn] ratios remain almost solar, suggesting that [S/Zn] may not be a reliable tracer of nucleosynthesis enrichment. Analysis of the cloud-to-cloud chemical variations within seven individual DLA systems reveals that five of them show statistically significant variations, higher than 0.2dex at more than 3σ, but only two DLAs show extreme variations. The sources of these variations are both the differential dust depletion and/or ionization effects; however, no evidence for variations due to different star formation histories could be highlighted. These observations place large constraints on the mixing timescales of protogalaxies and on scenarios of galaxy formation within the CDM hierarchical theory. Finally, we provide an astrophysical determination of the oscillator strength of the NiIIλ1317 transition.

Abstract Copyright:

Journal keyword(s): cosmology: observations - galaxies: quasars: absorption lines - galaxies: abundances - line: profiles

Nomenclature: Tables 2-8: [DPD2006] QSO JHHMM+DDMM abs N.NNNNN N=17+10+7+7+23+4.

Status at CDS:   Associated data (images, light curves, etc...) being ingested in VizieR.

Simbad objects: 65

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Number of rows : 65

N Identifier Otype ICRS (J2000)
RA
ICRS (J2000)
DEC
Mag U Mag B Mag V Mag R Mag I Sp type #ref
1850 - 2020
#notes
1 NAME SMC G 00 52 38.0 -72 48 01   2.79 2.2     ~ 9478 1
2 PHL 957 QSO 01 03 11.2740814277 +13 16 17.810502093   16.97 16.57     ~ 328 0
3 [DPD2006] QSO J1213+1714 abs 1.89242 ALS 02 13 03.0 +17 14 23           ~ 1 0
4 [DPD2006] QSO J1213+1714 abs 1.89222 ALS 02 13 03.0 +17 14 23           ~ 1 0
5 [DPD2006] QSO J1213+1714 abs 1.89192 ALS 02 13 03.0 +17 14 23           ~ 1 0
6 [DPD2006] QSO J1213+1714 abs 1.89177 ALS 02 13 03.0 +17 14 23           ~ 2 0
7 [DPD2006] QSO J1213+1714 abs 1.89126 ALS 02 13 03.0 +17 14 23           ~ 1 0
8 [DPD2006] QSO J1213+1714 abs 1.89158 ALS 02 13 03.0 +17 14 23           ~ 1 0
9 [DPD2006] QSO J1213+1714 abs 1.89140 ALS 02 13 03.0 +17 14 23           ~ 1 0
10 NAME Magellanic Clouds GrG 03 00 -71.0           ~ 5698 1
11 [DPD2006] QSO J0452-1305 abs 2.06666 ALS 04 52 18.90 -13 05 03.0           ~ 1 0
12 [DPD2006] QSO J0452-1305 abs 2.06657 ALS 04 52 18.90 -13 05 03.0           ~ 2 0
13 [DPD2006] QSO J0452-1305 abs 2.06680 ALS 04 52 18.90 -13 05 03.0           ~ 1 0
14 [DPD2006] QSO J0452-1305 abs 2.06698 ALS 04 52 18.90 -13 05 03.0           ~ 1 0
15 [DPD2006] QSO J0452-1305 abs 2.06700 ALS 04 52 18.90 -13 05 03.0           ~ 1 0
16 [DPD2006] QSO J0452-1305 abs 2.06716 ALS 04 52 18.90 -13 05 03.0           ~ 1 0
17 [DPD2006] QSO J0452-1305 abs 2.06758 ALS 04 52 18.90 -13 05 03.0           ~ 1 0
18 [DPD2006] QSO J0452-1305 abs 2.06771 ALS 04 52 18.90 -13 05 03.0           ~ 1 0
19 [DPD2006] QSO J0452-1305 abs 2.06797 ALS 04 52 18.90 -13 05 03.0           ~ 1 0
20 [DPD2006] QSO J0452-1305 abs 2.06811 ALS 04 52 18.90 -13 05 03.0           ~ 1 0
21 [TOS2004] QSO J0452-1305 abs 2.067 ALS 04 52 18.90 -13 05 03.0           ~ 3 0
22 [DPD2006] QSO J0452-1305 abs 2.06579 ALS 04 52 18.90 -13 05 03.0           ~ 1 0
23 [DPD2006] QSO J0452-1305 abs 2.06581 ALS 04 52 18.90 -13 05 03.0           ~ 1 0
24 [DPD2006] QSO J0452-1305 abs 2.06591 ALS 04 52 18.90 -13 05 03.0           ~ 1 0
25 [DPD2006] QSO J0452-1305 abs 2.06598 ALS 04 52 18.90 -13 05 03.0           ~ 1 0
26 [DPD2006] QSO J0452-1305 abs 2.06603 ALS 04 52 18.90 -13 05 03.0           ~ 1 0
27 [DPD2006] QSO J0452-1305 abs 2.06640 ALS 04 52 18.90 -13 05 03.0           ~ 1 0
28 [DPD2006] QSO J0452-1305 abs 2.06643 ALS 04 52 18.90 -13 05 03.0           ~ 1 0
29 QSO B0450-1310 QSO 04 53 13.5743802506 -13 05 55.082840035   13.2 16.5     ~ 87 2
30 NAME LMC G 05 23 34.6 -69 45 22     0.4     ~ 14874 1
31 [DPD2006] QSO J0844+1245 abs 2.37452 ALS 08 44 24.2 +12 45 48           ~ 1 0
32 [CBM2000] QSO J0844+1245 abs 2.4762 DLA 08 44 24.2 +12 45 48           ~ 15 0
33 [CBM2000] QSO J0844+1245 abs 2.3745 DLA 08 44 24.2 +12 45 48           ~ 20 0
34 [DPD2006] QSO J0844+1245 abs 2.37407 ALS 08 44 24.2 +12 45 48           ~ 1 0
35 [DPD2006] QSO J0844+1245 abs 2.37421 ALS 08 44 24.2 +12 45 48           ~ 1 0
36 [DPD2006] QSO J0844+1245 abs 2.37435 ALS 08 44 24.2 +12 45 48           ~ 1 0
37 [DPD2006] QSO J0844+1245 abs 2.37454 ALS 08 44 24.2 +12 45 48           ~ 1 0
38 [DPD2006] QSO J0844+1245 abs 2.37479 ALS 08 44 24.2 +12 45 48           ~ 1 0
39 [DPD2006] QSO J0844+1245 abs 2.37493 ALS 08 44 24.2 +12 45 48           ~ 1 0
40 [DPD2006] QSO J0844+1245 abs 2.47597 ALS 08 44 24.2 +12 45 48           ~ 1 0
41 [DPD2006] QSO J0844+1245 abs 2.47621 DLA 08 44 24.2 +12 45 48           ~ 1 0
42 [DPD2006] QSO J0844+1245 abs 2.47642 DLA 08 44 24.2 +12 45 48           ~ 2 0
43 QSO B0841+129 BLL 08 44 24.2446850407 +12 45 46.527740081   18.28 18.5     ~ 106 0
44 [DPD2006] QSO J1159+0112 abs 1.94404 ALS 11 59 44.82 +01 12 06.9           ~ 1 0
45 [DPD2006] QSO J1159+0112 abs 1.94366 ALS 11 59 44.82 +01 12 06.9           ~ 1 0
46 [DPD2006] QSO J1159+0112 abs 1.94377 ALS 11 59 44.82 +01 12 06.9           ~ 1 0
47 [DPD2006] QSO J1159+0112 abs 1.94411 ALS 11 59 44.82 +01 12 06.9           ~ 1 0
48 [PSL2000] QSO J1159+0112 abs 1.944 DLA 11 59 44.82 +01 12 06.9           ~ 17 0
49 [DPD2006] QSO J1159+0112 abs 1.94305 ALS 11 59 44.82 +01 12 06.9           ~ 1 0
50 [DPD2006] QSO J1159+0112 abs 1.94316 ALS 11 59 44.82 +01 12 06.9           ~ 1 0
51 [DPD2006] QSO J1159+0112 abs 1.94346 DLA 11 59 44.82 +01 12 06.9           ~ 2 0
52 QSO B1157+014 QSO 11 59 44.8277890111 +01 12 06.984367162   17.87 17.52     ~ 200 1
53 LBQS 1210+1731 QSO 12 13 03.0132688253 +17 14 23.238685675   18.21 18.03     ~ 76 0
54 QSO B1331+170 QSO 13 33 35.7826224 +16 49 04.014213   16.84 16.71 16.41   ~ 409 1
55 LBQS 2230+0232 QSO 22 32 35.2155602853 +02 47 55.814661874   18.387 18.038     ~ 87 0
56 [CBM2000] QSO J2234+0000 abs 2.0662 DLA 22 34 08.99 +00 00 01.7           ~ 23 0
57 LBQS 2230-0015 QSO 22 34 08.9971883754 +00 00 01.695912538   18.09 17.39 17.3   ~ 111 0
58 QSO B2343+125 QSO 23 46 28.200 +12 49 00.00     17.5     ~ 122 2
59 QSO B2348-147 QSO 23 51 29.8151829970 -14 27 56.845507757     16.9     ~ 71 1
60 [MWF2003] QSO J2351-1427 abs 2.2794 DLA 23 51 29.9 -14 27 48           ~ 18 0
61 [DPD2006] QSO J2351-1427 abs 2.27930 ALS 23 51 29.9 -14 27 48           ~ 1 0
62 [DPD2006] QSO J2351-1427 abs 2.27923 ALS 23 51 29.9 -14 27 48           ~ 1 0
63 [DPD2006] QSO J2351-1427 abs 2.27952 ALS 23 51 29.9 -14 27 48           ~ 1 0
64 [DPD2006] QSO J2351-1427 abs 2.27939 ALS 23 51 29.9 -14 27 48           ~ 2 0
65 NAME Local Group GrG ~ ~           ~ 7000 0

    Equat.    Gal    SGal    Ecl

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2020.08.09-07:49:33

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