2006A&A...453..923K


C.D.S. - SIMBAD4 rel 1.7 - 2021.02.26CET18:21:41

2006A&A...453..923K - Astronomy and Astrophysics, volume 453, 923-936 (2006/7-3)

Star formation in the Cepheus Flare region: implications from morphology and infrared properties of optically selected clouds.

KISS Z.T., TOTH L.V., KRAUSE O., KUN M. and STICKEL M.

Abstract (from CDS):

A complex study of visual and infrared properties of ISM and an examination of cloud morphology was carried out using USNO, 2MASS, DIRBE, IRAS, and ISO data of an extended region in Cepheus to explore the conditions of cloud and star formation. We mapped the distribution of visual extinction in a 256 square degree area of Cepheus. We identified clouds and described their morphology quantitatively to find features such as globular and head-tail shape. We also characterized the region using infrared data and combined the results with those obtained from visual data. Eight cloud complexes and four voids were identified and 208 dark clouds were localised, 86 of which had not been previously catalogued. The observed distribution of cloud axis ratios corresponds to near-prolate ellipsoidal clouds with random alignment. The cloud mass spectrum derived is dNcloud/dMcloud=6.1x102(Mcloud/M)–1.70M–1 . We pointed out a linear relationship between FIR colour temperature and galactic latitude at intermediate galactic latitudes (3°<b<18°) and a similar relationship for minimum cloud temperatures. The observed FIR colours of dark clouds were found to agree well with model calculations. We showed the signs of connection between the far-IR loop GIRL G109+11 and the active triggered star formation of adjacent cloud complexes. Relationships between the star-forming efficiency, peak extinction, and cloud mass were recognized and described with empirical formulae. YSOs were found in 7 of the 11 clouds with extinction above 4mag. These 11 clouds represent 21% of the total cloud mass and contain 52% of all the YSO candidates. High star-forming efficiencies, 0.52% and 0.56%, were found in globular and head-tail clouds, respectively, relative to the mean efficiency for the clouds in the region (0.16%). Cloud mass and peak extinction were found to be the most important factors of star-forming efficiency besides cloud morphology. The estimated intrinsic axis-ratio distribution is consistent with cloud formation from large-scale external forcing.

Abstract Copyright:

Journal keyword(s): ISM: clouds - dust, extinction - ISM: structure - stars: formation - Galaxy: solar neighbourhood - infrared: ISM

VizieR on-line data: <Available at CDS (J/A+A/453/923): tablea1.dat tablea2.dat notes.dat>

Nomenclature: Table 1: [KTK2006] NNN (Nos 1-208) = [KTK2006] GLLL.l+BB.b N=208.

Simbad objects: 225

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Number of rows : 225

N Identifier Otype ICRS (J2000)
RA
ICRS (J2000)
DEC
Mag U Mag B Mag V Mag R Mag I Sp type #ref
1850 - 2021
#notes
1 NAME Cas Cloud ~ 00 37 +65.8           ~ 26 0
2 [KTK2006] 73 Cld 01 05.2 +71 49           ~ 1 0
3 M 42 HII 05 35 17.3 -05 23 28           ~ 3776 0
4 NAME Ori A MoC 05 38 -07.1           ~ 2734 0
5 [KTK2006] 18 Cld 20 12.6 +70 15           ~ 1 0
6 [KTK2006] 15 Cld 20 17.3 +69 47           ~ 1 0
7 [KTK2006] 20 Cld 20 19.0 +70 07           ~ 1 0
8 [KTK2006] 4 Cld 20 23.6 +67 40           ~ 1 0
9 [KTK2006] 3 Cld 20 24.1 +66 41           ~ 1 0
10 [KTK2006] 52 Cld 20 26.9 +72 22           ~ 1 0
11 [KTK2006] 5 Cld 20 27.0 +67 46           ~ 1 0
12 [KTK2006] 82 Cld 20 27.6 +74 11           ~ 1 0
13 [KTK2006] 37 Cld 20 29.9 +71 13           ~ 1 0
14 [KTK2006] 17 Cld 20 30.0 +69 24           ~ 1 0
15 [KTK2006] 14 Cld 20 30.3 +69 09           ~ 1 0
16 [KTK2006] 171 Cld 20 31.1 +78 42           ~ 1 0
17 [KTK2006] 74 Cld 20 31.5 +73 34           ~ 1 0
18 [KTK2006] 100 Cld 20 32.9 +74 55           ~ 1 0
19 [KTK2006] 13 Cld 20 33.0 +68 42           ~ 1 0
20 [KTK2006] 1 Cld 20 33.2 +65 23           ~ 1 0
21 [KTK2006] 2 Cld 20 34.2 +65 42           ~ 1 0
22 [KTK2006] 6 Cld 20 34.6 +67 28           ~ 1 0
23 [KTK2006] 8 Cld 20 36.0 +67 50           ~ 1 0
24 [KTK2006] 65 Cld 20 38.0 +72 52           ~ 1 0
25 [KTK2006] 11 Cld 20 38.9 +68 01           ~ 1 0
26 LDN 1157 DNe 20 39 06.4 +68 02 13           ~ 500 0
27 [KTK2006] 7 Cld 20 40.0 +67 17           ~ 1 0
28 [KTK2006] 64 Cld 20 40.6 +72 38           ~ 1 0
29 [KTK2006] 10 Cld 20 40.7 +67 57           ~ 1 0
30 [KTK2006] 117 Cld 20 41.2 +75 32           ~ 1 0
31 [KTK2006] 91 Cld 20 41.6 +73 59           ~ 1 0
32 [KTK2006] 60 Cld 20 42.1 +72 13           ~ 1 0
33 LDN 1155 DNe 20 43.5 +67 41           ~ 25 0
34 [KTK2006] 12 Cld 20 43.5 +67 50           ~ 1 0
35 [KTK2006] 9 Cld 20 44.3 +67 39           ~ 1 0
36 [KTK2006] 54 Cld 20 45.1 +71 46           ~ 1 0
37 [KTK2006] 94 Cld 20 46.7 +73 52           ~ 1 0
38 [KTK2006] 87 Cld 20 48.4 +73 18           ~ 1 0
39 [KTK2006] 71 Cld 20 50.8 +72 24           ~ 1 0
40 [KTK2006] 80 Cld 20 51.9 +72 50           ~ 1 0
41 [KTK2006] 21 Cld 20 53.3 +68 18           ~ 1 0
42 [KTK2006] 99 Cld 20 53.8 +73 50           ~ 1 0
43 [KTK2006] 129 Cld 20 54.9 +75 30           ~ 1 0
44 [KTK2006] 108 Cld 20 56.1 +74 16           ~ 1 0
45 [KTK2006] 176 Cld 20 56.2 +78 28           ~ 1 0
46 [KTK2006] 16 Cld 20 56.6 +67 37           ~ 1 0
47 [KTK2006] 168 Cld 20 58.1 +77 32           ~ 1 0
48 [KTK2006] 40 Cld 20 58.3 +69 38           ~ 1 0
49 [KTK2006] 70 Cld 20 58.7 +71 54           ~ 1 0
50 [KTK2006] 86 Cld 20 58.9 +72 48           ~ 1 0
51 [KTK2006] 130 Cld 20 59.0 +75 23           ~ 1 0
52 [KTK2006] 175 Cld 20 59.1 +78 22           ~ 1 0
53 [KTK2006] 97 Cld 20 59.2 +73 26           ~ 1 0
54 [KTK2006] 185 Cld 20 59.5 +78 55           ~ 1 0
55 [KTK2006] 77 Cld 21 00.0 +72 13           ~ 1 0
56 LDN 1174 DNe 21 00 22.4 +68 12 53           ~ 60 0
57 [KTK2006] 105 Cld 21 00.5 +73 52           ~ 1 0
58 [KTK2006] 157 Cld 21 00.7 +76 17           ~ 1 0
59 [KTK2006] 123 Cld 21 02.0 +74 54           ~ 1 0
60 [KTK2006] 23 Cld 21 02.1 +67 56           ~ 1 0
61 [KTK2006] 56 Cld 21 02.1 +71 01           ~ 1 0
62 [KTK2006] 63 Cld 21 02.3 +71 29           ~ 1 0
63 LDN 1172A DNe 21 02 27.7 +67 54 08           ~ 24 0
64 LDN 1172 DNe 21 02 27.7 +67 54 08           ~ 49 0
65 [KTK2006] 196 Cld 21 02.5 +79 27           ~ 1 0
66 [YDM97] CO 14 MoC 21 02 35.0 +68 10 46           ~ 2 0
67 [KTK2006] 76 Cld 21 02.7 +72 00           ~ 1 0
68 [KTK2006] 113 Cld 21 02.8 +74 13           ~ 1 0
69 [KTK2006] 90 Cld 21 03.5 +72 48           ~ 1 0
70 [KTK2006] 69 Cld 21 04.2 +71 36           ~ 1 0
71 [KTK2006] 55 Cld 21 04.5 +70 43           ~ 1 0
72 [KTK2006] 19 Cld 21 05.6 +67 07           ~ 1 0
73 [KTK2006] 128 Cld 21 08.1 +74 45           ~ 1 0
74 [KTK2006] 26 Cld 21 10.5 +67 24           ~ 1 0
75 [KTK2006] 103 Cld 21 10.8 +73 08           ~ 1 0
76 [KTK2006] 50 Cld 21 10.9 +69 44           ~ 1 0
77 [KTK2006] 116 Cld 21 13.4 +73 50           ~ 1 0
78 [KTK2006] 151 Cld 21 13.4 +75 28           ~ 1 0
79 [KTK2006] 93 Cld 21 13.9 +72 16           ~ 1 0
80 [KTK2006] 119 Cld 21 14.1 +74 03           ~ 1 0
81 [KTK2006] 79 Cld 21 14.2 +71 22           ~ 1 0
82 [KTK2006] 30 Cld 21 14.4 +67 39           ~ 1 0
83 [KTK2006] 127 Cld 21 14.9 +74 27           ~ 1 0
84 [KTK2006] 112 Cld 21 16.3 +73 16           ~ 1 0
85 [KTK2006] 115 Cld 21 16.7 +73 40           ~ 1 0
86 [KTK2006] 36 Cld 21 16.9 +67 57           ~ 1 0
87 [KTK2006] 135 Cld 21 17.1 +74 41           ~ 1 0
88 [KTK2006] 41 Cld 21 17.5 +68 20           ~ 1 0
89 [KTK2006] 32 Cld 21 17.6 +67 28           ~ 1 0
90 [KTK2006] 43 Cld 21 18.2 +68 39           ~ 1 0
91 [KTK2006] 102 Cld 21 18.4 +72 42           ~ 1 0
92 [KTK2006] 28 Cld 21 19.6 +66 47           ~ 1 0
93 NAME Cep Region reg 21 20 00.0 +72 30 00           ~ 96 0
94 [KTK2006] 89 Cld 21 20.3 +71 48           ~ 1 0
95 [KTK2006] 61 Cld 21 20.4 +70 05           ~ 1 0
96 [KTK2006] 49 Cld 21 21.5 +68 48           ~ 1 0
97 [KTK2006] 101 Cld 21 22.0 +72 27           ~ 1 0
98 [KTK2006] 59 Cld 21 22.1 +69 37           ~ 1 0
99 [KTK2006] 133 Cld 21 22.3 +74 10           ~ 1 0
100 [KTK2006] 122 Cld 21 22.5 +73 44           ~ 1 0
101 [KTK2006] 22 Cld 21 22.8 +65 58           ~ 1 0
102 [KTK2006] 144 Cld 21 23.5 +74 37           ~ 1 0
103 [KTK2006] 132 Cld 21 24.2 +74 05           ~ 1 0
104 [KTK2006] 51 Cld 21 24.5 +68 46           ~ 1 0
105 [KTK2006] 85 Cld 21 25.2 +71 01           ~ 1 0
106 [KTK2006] 46 Cld 21 26.5 +68 09           ~ 1 0
107 [KTK2006] 25 Cld 21 26.7 +65 54           ~ 1 0
108 [KTK2006] 39 Cld 21 27.1 +67 16           ~ 1 0
109 [KTK2006] 88 Cld 21 27.1 +71 06           ~ 1 0
110 [KTK2006] 96 Cld 21 27.7 +71 37           ~ 1 0
111 [KTK2006] 107 Cld 21 27.7 +72 17           ~ 1 0
112 [KTK2006] 34 Cld 21 28.2 +66 42           ~ 1 0
113 [KTK2006] 148 Cld 21 29.4 +74 23           ~ 1 0
114 [KTK2006] 161 Cld 21 30.4 +74 55           ~ 1 0
115 [KTK2006] 33 Cld 21 30.5 +66 28           ~ 1 0
116 [KTK2006] 58 Cld 21 30.7 +68 49           ~ 1 0
117 [KTK2006] 68 Cld 21 31.1 +69 29           ~ 1 0
118 [KTK2006] 31 Cld 21 31.4 +66 05           ~ 1 0
119 [KTK2006] 75 Cld 21 32.0 +69 54           ~ 1 0
120 [KTK2006] 27 Cld 21 32.4 +65 25           ~ 1 0
121 [KTK2006] 121 Cld 21 32.6 +73 02           ~ 1 0
122 [KTK2006] 159 Cld 21 33.8 +74 32           ~ 1 0
123 [KTK2006] 84 Cld 21 34.7 +70 12           ~ 1 0
124 [KTK2006] 38 Cld 21 34.8 +66 31           ~ 1 0
125 [KTK2006] 95 Cld 21 35.0 +71 04           ~ 1 0
126 [KTK2006] 57 Cld 21 35.3 +68 24           ~ 1 0
127 [KTK2006] 29 Cld 21 35.4 +65 35           ~ 1 0
128 [KTK2006] 35 Cld 21 36.0 +66 05           ~ 1 0
129 [KTK2006] 62 Cld 21 36.1 +68 49           ~ 1 0
130 [KTK2006] 24 Cld 21 36.4 +64 55           ~ 1 0
131 [KTK2006] 92 Cld 21 36.4 +70 33           ~ 1 0
132 [KTK2006] 156 Cld 21 36.6 +74 12           ~ 1 0
133 [KTK2006] 45 Cld 21 37.7 +66 58           ~ 1 0
134 [KTK2006] 174 Cld 21 38.0 +76 13           ~ 1 0
135 [KTK2006] 179 Cld 21 38.2 +76 42           ~ 1 0
136 [KTK2006] 72 Cld 21 38.6 +69 00           ~ 1 0
137 [KTK2006] 47 Cld 21 39.3 +67 06           ~ 1 0
138 [KTK2006] 44 Cld 21 40.6 +66 34           ~ 1 0
139 [KTK2006] 48 Cld 21 41.7 +66 58           ~ 1 0
140 [KTK2006] 126 Cld 21 41.8 +72 34           ~ 1 0
141 [KTK2006] 114 Cld 21 41.9 +71 54           ~ 1 0
142 [KTK2006] 42 Cld 21 43.2 +66 10           ~ 1 0
143 [KTK2006] 67 Cld 21 43.7 +68 19           ~ 1 0
144 [KTK2006] 109 Cld 21 44.3 +71 04           ~ 1 0
145 [KTK2006] 186 Cld 21 44.7 +76 50           ~ 1 0
146 [KTK2006] 178 Cld 21 45.4 +76 19           ~ 1 0
147 [KTK2006] 163 Cld 21 46.0 +74 15           ~ 1 0
148 [KTK2006] 141 Cld 21 46.7 +72 50           ~ 1 0
149 [KTK2006] 125 Cld 21 46.9 +71 58           ~ 1 0
150 [KTK2006] 199 Cld 21 48.3 +77 45           ~ 1 0
151 [KTK2006] 143 Cld 21 49.0 +72 53           ~ 1 0
152 [KTK2006] 53 Cld 21 49.4 +66 32           ~ 1 0
153 [KTK2006] 195 Cld 21 49.8 +77 13           ~ 1 0
154 LDN 1241 DNe 21 50.0 +76 44           ~ 16 0
155 [KTK2006] 140 Cld 21 50.1 +72 38           ~ 1 0
156 [KTK2006] 188 Cld 21 50.4 +76 43           ~ 1 0
157 [KTK2006] 167 Cld 21 51.8 +74 07           ~ 1 0
158 [KTK2006] 184 Cld 21 52.0 +76 13           ~ 1 0
159 [KTK2006] 206 Cld 21 52.2 +79 49           ~ 1 0
160 [KTK2006] 181 Cld 21 54.3 +75 55           ~ 1 0
161 [KTK2006] 124 Cld 21 55.0 +71 18           ~ 1 0
162 [KTK2006] 134 Cld 21 55.1 +71 52           ~ 1 0
163 [KTK2006] 198 Cld 21 56.5 +77 21           ~ 1 0
164 [KTK2006] 183 Cld 21 57.9 +75 47           ~ 1 0
165 [KTK2006] 194 Cld 21 58.1 +76 45           ~ 1 0
166 [KTK2006] 162 Cld 21 58.9 +72 51           ~ 1 0
167 [KTK2006] 142 Cld 22 02.5 +71 35           ~ 1 0
168 [KTK2006] 187 Cld 22 02.5 +75 50           ~ 1 0
169 [KTK2006] 192 Cld 22 03.2 +76 14           ~ 1 0
170 [KTK2006] 139 Cld 22 03.3 +71 19           ~ 1 0
171 GIRL G109+10 IR 22 05 +69.3           ~ 2 0
172 [KTK2006] 160 Cld 22 05.1 +72 12           ~ 1 0
173 [KTK2006] 166 Cld 22 05.8 +72 55           ~ 1 0
174 [KTK2006] 147 Cld 22 07.0 +71 19           ~ 1 0
175 [KTK2006] 190 Cld 22 07.2 +75 49           ~ 1 0
176 [KTK2006] 170 Cld 22 07.6 +73 15           ~ 1 0
177 [KTK2006] 202 Cld 22 09.1 +77 21           ~ 1 0
178 [KTK2006] 200 Cld 22 10.0 +76 45           ~ 1 0
179 [KTK2006] 189 Cld 22 10.8 +75 14           ~ 1 0
180 [KTK2006] 83 Cld 22 11.2 +66 03           ~ 1 0
181 [KTK2006] 66 Cld 22 11.4 +64 54           ~ 1 0
182 [KTK2006] 81 Cld 22 11.7 +65 53           ~ 1 0
183 [KTK2006] 78 Cld 22 11.8 +65 24           ~ 1 0
184 [KTK2006] 173 Cld 22 12.0 +73 13           ~ 1 0
185 [KTK2006] 155 Cld 22 12.7 +70 57           ~ 1 0
186 [KTK2006] 146 Cld 22 13.7 +70 28           ~ 1 0
187 [KTK2006] 193 Cld 22 14.0 +75 29           ~ 1 0
188 NAME Cep R2 As* 22 16 +71.0           ~ 10 0
189 [KTK2006] 191 Cld 22 16.5 +75 08           ~ 1 0
190 [KTK2006] 165 Cld 22 16.8 +71 35           ~ 1 0
191 [KTK2006] 172 Cld 22 20.5 +72 22           ~ 1 0
192 [KTK2006] 205 Cld 22 20.5 +78 06           ~ 1 0
193 [KTK2006] 204 Cld 22 21.7 +76 53           ~ 2 0
194 [KTK2006] 104 Cld 22 21.9 +66 16           ~ 1 0
195 [KTK2006] 197 Cld 22 21.9 +75 09           ~ 1 0
196 [KTK2006] 98 Cld 22 22.5 +65 32           ~ 1 0
197 [KTK2006] 111 Cld 22 23.5 +66 28           ~ 1 0
198 [KTK2006] 110 Cld 22 25.5 +66 19           ~ 1 0
199 [KTK2006] 154 Cld 22 28.1 +69 04           ~ 1 0
200 [KTK2006] 106 Cld 22 29.8 +65 11           ~ 1 0
201 [KTK2006] 120 Cld 22 30.6 +66 32           ~ 1 0
202 [KTK2006] 118 Cld 22 34.0 +65 46           ~ 1 0
203 [KTK2006] 131 Cld 22 34.1 +66 38           ~ 1 0
204 [KTK2006] 203 Cld 22 34.7 +75 14           ~ 1 0
205 [KTK2006] 164 Cld 22 35.2 +69 08           ~ 1 0
206 [KTK2006] 158 Cld 22 35.6 +68 06           ~ 1 0
207 LDN 1251 DNe 22 36.1 +75 16           ~ 98 0
208 [KTK2006] 136 Cld 22 36.4 +66 40           ~ 1 0
209 [KTK2006] 138 Cld 22 36.5 +66 49           ~ 1 0
210 [KTK2006] 137 Cld 22 38.5 +66 34           ~ 1 0
211 [KTK2006] 150 Cld 22 38.8 +67 13           ~ 1 0
212 [KTK2006] 145 Cld 22 41.7 +66 26           ~ 1 0
213 NAME Cep R1 As* 22 42 +63.0           ~ 6 0
214 [KTK2006] 149 Cld 22 43.7 +66 15           ~ 1 0
215 [KTK2006] 201 Cld 22 43.9 +73 55           ~ 1 0
216 [KTK2006] 169 Cld 22 47.0 +68 07           ~ 1 0
217 [KTK2006] 153 Cld 22 50.9 +65 05           ~ 1 0
218 [KTK2006] 152 Cld 22 52.8 +64 40           ~ 1 0
219 [KTK2006] 180 Cld 22 53.0 +68 59           ~ 1 0
220 [KTK2006] 182 Cld 22 53.8 +69 27           ~ 1 0
221 [KTK2006] 177 Cld 22 56.2 +68 04           ~ 1 0
222 LBN 116.20+12.34 HII 23 14 +74.0           ~ 1 0
223 [KTK2006] 207 Cld 23 15.8 +73 55           ~ 1 0
224 [KTK2006] 208 Cld 23 25.8 +74 18           ~ 1 0
225 NAME Cep Flare MoC 23 34 +72.0           ~ 107 0

    Equat.    Gal    SGal    Ecl

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2021.02.26-18:21:41

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