2007A&A...463..427P


Query : 2007A&A...463..427P

2007A&A...463..427P - Astronomy and Astrophysics, volume 463, 427-443 (2007/2-4)

Planar distribution of the galaxies in the Local Group: a statistical and dynamical analysis.

PASETTO S. and CHIOSI C.

Abstract (from CDS):

Basing on the projected distribution of the galaxies in the Local Group, Sawa & Fujimoto found that they all seem to distribute on a rather thin plane containing the two mayor local galaxies of the Local Group, Milky Way and Andromeda, and all their dwarf satellites. As their conclusion could be severely biased by projectional distortion effects, we re-analyse the whole issue using a different approach. In brief, adopting known data on positions and distances, we make use of the analytical geometry and look for the plane that minimizes the distances of all galaxies to it. A planar distribution is indeed found that, however, does not coincide with the plane found by Sawa & Fujimoto (2005PASJ...57..429S). Why? The second part of this study is devoted to answer this question and to find a dynamical justification for the planar distribution. To this aim, we apply the Hamilton Method (Minimum Action) to investigate the dynamics of the two major system of the Local Group, Milky Way and Andromeda, under the action of external forces exerted by nearby galaxies or groups external to the Local Group. We find that the planar distribution is fully compatible with the minimum action and that the external force field is likely parallel to the plane. It pulls the galaxies of the Local Group without altering their planar distribution. Special care is paid to evaluate the robustness of this result. In this paper we have examined the spatial distribution of galaxies in the Local Group. They are confined to a plane that can be statistically and dynamically understood as the result of the Minimum Action. The planar distribution seems to be stable for a large fraction of the Hubble time. The external force field, that has likely been constant over the same time interval, does not alter the planar distribution as it is nearly parallel to it. Effects due to undetected halos of sole Dark Matter are briefly discussed. They could be a point of uncertainty of the present study.

Abstract Copyright:

Journal keyword(s): stellar dynamics - Local Group - galaxies: dwarf

Simbad objects: 82

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Number of rows : 82
N Identifier Otype ICRS (J2000)
RA
ICRS (J2000)
DEC
Mag U Mag B Mag V Mag R Mag I Sp type #ref
1850 - 2023
#notes
1 NAME WLM Galaxy G 00 01 57.9 -15 27 50   11.50 11.10 10.93   ~ 642 2
2 NGC 55 GiG 00 14 53.602 -39 11 47.86 8.54 8.58 7.87 7.84   ~ 748 2
3 IC 10 G 00 20 23.16 +59 17 34.7   13.6 9.5     ~ 1082 0
4 NGC 147 GiG 00 33 12.120 +48 30 31.46   12.0 9.5     ~ 667 1
5 NAME Andromeda III G 00 35 22.7 +36 30 17     14.4     ~ 288 0
6 NGC 185 Sy2 00 38 57.9400026024 +48 20 15.035874648   9.10 9.2     ~ 777 1
7 M 110 GiG 00 40 22.0572349992 +41 41 07.507220136   8.92 8.07     ~ 1276 1
8 M 32 IG 00 42 41.825 +40 51 54.61 9.51 9.03 8.08     ~ 2112 2
9 M 31 G 00 42 44.330 +41 16 07.50 4.86 4.36 3.44     ~ 12097 1
10 NAME Andromeda I G 00 45 39.8 +38 02 28   13.9 12.7     ~ 328 0
11 NGC 247 LSB 00 47 08.554 -20 45 37.44 10.11 9.61 9.10 8.87   ~ 415 2
12 NAME M31 Group GrG 00 47 28.6 +40 17 23           ~ 62 0
13 NGC 253 SyG 00 47 33.134 -25 17 19.68   8.03   6.94 8.1 ~ 3193 2
14 NAME SGP reg 00 51 26.275 -27 07 41.70           ~ 554 0
15 NAME SMC G 00 52 38.0 -72 48 01   2.79 2.2     ~ 10530 1
16 NGC 300 GiG 00 54 53.4465638304 -37 41 03.168402396 8.83 8.69 8.13 7.46   ~ 1435 2
17 NAME Sculptor Dwarf Galaxy G 01 00 09.4 -33 42 32   9.79 8.6 8.81   ~ 1270 4
18 NAME Pisces I G 01 03 56.6 +21 53 41   16.18 14.3     ~ 377 0
19 IC 1613 GiC 01 04 54.2 +02 08 00   10.42 10.01 9.77   ~ 1187 2
20 NGC 404 LIN 01 09 27.1 +35 43 05   12.56 11.73     ~ 446 0
21 NAME Andromeda II G 01 16 29.8 +33 25 09     11.7     ~ 365 0
22 M 33 GiG 01 33 50.8965749232 +30 39 36.630403128 6.17 6.27 5.72     ~ 5603 1
23 NAME Phoenix Dwarf Galaxy Sy1 01 51 06.3 -44 26 41   13.48 13.2 12.69   ~ 508 2
24 LBN 659 GiG 02 36 35.4662282832 +59 39 17.507008584   17       ~ 183 2
25 NAME Fornax Dwarf Spheroidal G 02 39 59.3 -34 26 57   9.02 7.4     ~ 1660 1
26 UGCA 39 GiG 02 41 55.092 +59 36 14.73   16       ~ 341 1
27 NGC 1311 G 03 20 06.946 -52 11 07.76 13.89 13.35 12.93 12.75 13.1 ~ 115 0
28 IC 342 SBG 03 46 48.514 +68 05 45.98   10.5       ~ 1469 1
29 NAME IC 342 Group GrG 03 48 42 +68 00.8           ~ 100 1
30 NAME Maffei Group GrG 03 49 +68.0           ~ 49 0
31 NGC 1569 IG 04 30 49.186 +64 50 52.52 11.72 11.86 11.03     ~ 1211 3
32 UGCA 92 G 04 32 04.9 +63 36 49   16.15       ~ 120 0
33 NGC 1560 GiG 04 32 49.087 +71 52 59.20   12.1       ~ 245 0
34 UGCA 105 GiG 05 14 15.3240846648 +62 34 47.964904644   15.3       ~ 78 1
35 NAME LMC G 05 23 34.6 -69 45 22     0.4     ~ 16509 1
36 NAME Carina dSph G 06 41 36.7 -50 57 58   22.14 11.0 19.47   ~ 1076 0
37 NGC 2366 H2G 07 28 51.85 +69 12 31.1 12.25 11.86 11.39 11.33   ~ 738 0
38 NGC 2403 AGN 07 36 51.3381434280 +65 36 09.650825640 9.31 8.84 8.38 8.19   ~ 1721 1
39 UGC 4305 IG 08 19 04.9864630512 +70 43 13.086910452 12.06 11.72 11.39 11.11   ~ 743 2
40 NAME M 81 Dwarf A G 08 23 55.1 +71 01 56   16.5       ~ 196 1
41 UGC 4459 GiG 08 34 07.29 +66 10 54.6 15.39 15.03 14.70 14.49   ~ 322 2
42 UGC 5139 LSB 09 40 32.33 +71 10 56.0 14.53 14.00 13.66 13.41   ~ 347 1
43 NGC 2976 GiP 09 47 15.458 +67 54 58.97 11.77 11.03 10.16 9.51   ~ 639 1
44 LEDA 28529 G 09 53 48.8 +68 58 09   18.89       ~ 88 1
45 NAME M 81-82 Group GrG 09 55 +69.1           ~ 690 0
46 M 81 Sy2 09 55 33.1726556496 +69 03 55.062505368   7.89 6.94     ~ 4261 3
47 NAME Arp Loop G 09 57 29.0 +69 16 20           ~ 62 1
48 UGC 5336 G 09 57 32.1 +69 02 46 15.19 15.15 14.10 14.12   ~ 305 4
49 NAME Leo A G 09 59 26.46 +30 44 47.0 14.08 13.54 13.26 13.33   ~ 588 0
50 NAME Sextans B H2G 10 00 00.8217342072 +05 20 09.533389560 12.77 12.25 11.89 11.71   ~ 511 0
51 NGC 3109 G 10 03 06.877 -26 09 34.46 11.10 10.42 10.04 9.91   ~ 742 2
52 NAME Garland G 10 03 43.1 +68 41 32           ~ 60 2
53 NAME Antlia Dwarf Galaxy G 10 04 03.9 -27 20 01 16.73 15.69 15.17 15.00   ~ 205 1
54 Z 64-73 G 10 08 28.12 +12 18 23.4   11.3 10.0     ~ 1151 1
55 NAME Sex A H2G 10 11 00.5 -04 41 30 12.48 12.13 11.93 11.78   ~ 705 2
56 NAME Dwarf Elliptical Galaxy in Sex G 10 13 02.9 -01 36 53   12 10.4     ~ 796 0
57 IC 2574 G 10 28 23.6148831408 +68 24 43.440012756 11.70 11.07 10.87 10.74   ~ 641 1
58 UGC 5692 GiG 10 30 36.58 +70 37 06.0 14.81 13.69 13.01 12.73   ~ 122 0
59 LEDA 32667 LSB 10 52 55.1 +69 32 46   17.2       ~ 81 1
60 Z 126-111 G 11 13 28.13 +22 09 10.1   12.9 12.0     ~ 804 0
61 UGC 6456 bCG 11 28 00.43 +78 59 38.4   14.50       ~ 325 1
62 NGC 4236 GiG 12 16 42.118 +69 27 45.25 10.97 10.58 10.08 9.90   ~ 384 1
63 NAME NGP reg 12 51 26.275 +27 07 41.70           ~ 1131 0
64 UGC 8091 H2G 12 58 40.1930636208 +14 13 00.739589628 15.24 15.16 14.98 14.81   ~ 453 0
65 ACO 1656 ClG 12 59 48.7 +27 58 50           ~ 4599 2
66 NGC 4945 Sy2 13 05 27.279 -49 28 04.44   9.31 14.40 7.55   ~ 1398 2
67 UGC 8201 G 13 06 24.85 +67 42 25.0 14.08 13.61 13.08 12.98   ~ 243 1
68 NAME Centaurus A Sy2 13 25 27.61521044 -43 01 08.8050291   8.18 6.84 6.66   ~ 4320 3
69 M 83 SBG 13 37 00.91920 -29 51 56.7400 8.85 8.11 7.52 7.21   ~ 2453 2
70 NAME Circinus Galaxy Sy2 14 13 09.906 -65 20 20.47   10.89 9.84 10.6 10.0 ~ 1127 2
71 NAME UMi Galaxy G 15 09 11.34 +67 12 51.7   13.60 10.6     ~ 1291 0
72 NAME Dra dSph G 17 20 14.335 +57 55 16.39   12.40 10.6     ~ 1273 1
73 NAME SDG G 18 55 03.1 -30 28 42   4.5 3.6     ~ 2031 2
74 NAME Sgr dIG G 19 29 59.0 -17 40 41   15.5 13.6     ~ 295 1
75 NGC 6822 G 19 44 56.199 -14 47 51.29   18 8.1     ~ 1511 0
76 NAME Aquarius Dwarf G 20 46 51.7 -12 50 54 15.75 15.18 14.83 14.46   ~ 426 1
77 IC 5152 G 22 02 41.521 -51 17 47.20   11.03 10.9 10.19   ~ 237 1
78 NAME Tuc Galaxy G 22 41 49.6 -64 25 10   15.7 15.2     ~ 286 0
79 ESO 407-18 G 23 26 27.52 -32 23 19.5 15.34 14.71 14.23 14.03   ~ 151 0
80 NAME PegDIG G 23 28 35.2 +14 44 35 13.85 13.16 12.52     ~ 456 1
81 NGC 7793 GiG 23 57 49.7540045856 -32 35 27.701550744 10.26 9.74 9.28 9.06 9.7 ~ 1055 2
82 NAME Local Group GrG ~ ~           ~ 7893 0

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2023.01.31-07:19:26

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