2007A&A...468..463S


C.D.S. - SIMBAD4 rel 1.7 - 2020.07.06CEST19:38:37

2007A&A...468..463S - Astronomy and Astrophysics, volume 468, 463-475 (2007/6-3)

A statistical analysis of X-ray variability in pre-main sequence objects of the Taurus molecular cloud.

STELZER B., FLACCOMIO E., BRIGGS K., MICELA G., SCELSI L., AUDARD M., PILLITTERI I. and GUEDEL M.

Abstract (from CDS):

This work is part of a systematic X-ray survey of the Taurus star-forming complex with XMM-Newton. We study the time series of all X-ray sources associated with Taurus members, to statistically characterize their X-ray variability, and compare the results to those for pre-main sequence stars in the Orion Nebula Cluster and to expectations arising from a model where all the X-ray emission is the result of a large number of stochastically occurring flares. The analysis of the light curves is based on a maximum likelihood algorithm that segments the time series in intervals of constant signal without the need of binning. Flares are defined with criteria that take into account the amplitude and the derivative of the segmented light curves. Variability statistics are evaluated for different classes of pre-main sequence stars (protostars, cTTS, wTTS, brown dwarfs), and for different spectral type ranges. Flare frequency and energy distribution are computed. We find that roughly half of the detected X-ray sources show variability above our sensitivity limit, and in ∼26% of the cases this variability is recognized as flares. Variability is more frequently detected at hard than at soft energies. The variability statistics of cTTS and wTTS are indistinguishable, suggesting a common (coronal) origin for their X-ray emission. The frequency of large flares (E>1035erg) on Taurus members is 1 event per star in 800ks. The typical duration of these flares - probably biased by the finite observing time - is about 10ks. We have applied a rigorous maximum likelihood method in the analysis of the number distribution of flare energies on pre-main sequence stars for the first time. In its differential form this distribution follows a power law with index α=2.4±0.5, in the range typically observed for late-type stars and the Sun. The signature of the X-ray variability in the pre-main sequence stars in Taurus and Orion provides twofold support for coronal heating by flares: (i) the correlation between the maximum variability amplitude and the minimum emission level indicates that both flare and quiescent emissions are closely related to the coronal heating process; (ii) the power law index α derived for the flare energy distribution is large enough to explain the heating of stellar coronae by nano-flares (α> 2), albeit associated with a rather large uncertainty that leaves some doubt as to this conclusion.

Abstract Copyright:

Journal keyword(s): stars: activity - stars: coronae - stars: pre-main sequence - stars: late-type - X-rays: stars

Simbad objects: 127

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Number of rows : 127

N Identifier Otype ICRS (J2000)
RA
ICRS (J2000)
DEC
Mag U Mag B Mag V Mag R Mag I Sp type #ref
1850 - 2020
#notes
1 2MASS J03542950+3203013 TT* 03 54 29.5045697196 +32 03 01.407089906   12.71 11.85     G0 48 0
2 2MASS J04034930+2610520 TT* 04 03 49.308 +26 10 52.03   15.99 14.52     M3.9 61 0
3 2MASS J04035084+2610531 TT* 04 03 50.8393021714 +26 10 53.015575434   15.57 14.17     M2.8 52 0
4 IRAS 04016+2610 Y*O 04 04 43.07064 +26 18 56.3904           ~ 235 0
5 V* V1095 Tau TT* 04 13 14.1550545701 +28 19 10.670834057   15.32 13.81 13.62   M4 96 0
6 V* V1096 Tau TT* 04 13 27.2226142854 +28 16 24.653683705   15.42 13.53 13.07   M0 71 0
7 NAME IRAS 04108+2803B Y*O 04 13 54.71688 +28 11 32.8992           K0-M3 36 0
8 HD 283447 Or* 04 14 12.9232870093 +28 12 12.378540314 13.17 12.07 10.68 9.45 8.67 K3Ve 380 0
9 V* FM Tau Or* 04 14 13.5839505100 +28 12 49.166941548 14.44   13.80 13.64   M0/2e 189 0
10 V* CW Tau Or* 04 14 17.0041128798 +28 10 57.765657757 13.92 13.64 12.36 12.86   K0Ve 315 0
11 [BCG93] 1 TT* 04 14 17.6094853639 +28 06 09.650035718 18.04         M4.5 73 0
12 [BHS98] MHO 1 TT* 04 14 26.2709425846 +28 06 03.288644046           M2.5 35 1
13 [BHS98] MHO 2 TT* 04 14 26.4022247808 +28 05 59.640852985           M2.5 42 1
14 NAME IRAS 04114+2757G TT* 04 14 30.5533533766 +28 05 14.599582233           M2.2 46 0
15 V* FO Tau Or* 04 14 49.2797479571 +28 12 30.461592529       14.92   M3.5e+M3.5e 112 0
16 [BCG93] 2 TT* 04 15 05.1566689290 +28 08 46.055640665           M5.5 40 0
17 V* CY Tau Or* 04 17 33.7281514373 +28 20 46.809969664 14.52 14.68 13.40 12.59   M1.5 229 0
18 V* V1312 Tau TT* 04 17 38.9462203679 +28 33 00.570855332   15.57 13.26 13.12   M2 88 0
19 IRAS F04147+2822 TT* 04 17 49.6578079496 +28 29 36.325239443           M3.7 62 0
20 [SS94] V410 X-ray 3 TT* 04 18 07.9726935315 +28 26 03.673508581     18.319     M6 63 0
21 2MASS J04181710+2828419 TT* 04 18 17.1091861192 +28 28 41.921033525     22.175     M6.4 74 0
22 2MASS J04182909+2826191 Y*O 04 18 29.09760 +28 26 19.1148           ~ 29 0
23 V* V410 Tau Or* 04 18 31.1083261392 +28 27 16.155411536   12.13 10.75 8.45 9.408 K3Ve 424 0
24 V* DD Tau Or* 04 18 31.1271804823 +28 16 29.158626278 15.94 15.49 14.10 13.76   M3.5e+M3.5e 177 0
25 V* CZ Tau Or* 04 18 31.5906879009 +28 16 58.161795569 15.96 16.60 15.70 14.77   M2 128 0
26 IRAS 04154+2823 Y*O 04 18 32.0460600618 +28 31 14.990027099           M2.5 59 0
27 2MASS J04183444+2830302 Y*O 04 18 34.44696 +28 30 30.2256           M0 38 0
28 2MASS J04184023+2824245 TT* 04 18 40.2358778388 +28 24 24.075268613           ~ 30 0
29 V* V892 Tau Ae* 04 18 40.6120892867 +28 19 15.641672501   16.6 14.69 14.35   A0Ve 266 0
30 LR 1 Y*O 04 18 41.33232 +28 27 25.0092           K7 33 0
31 [SS94] V410 X-ray 7 TT* 04 18 42.4993698860 +28 18 49.913254563       18.02 15.42 ~ 36 0
32 V* V1023 Tau Or* 04 18 47.0296109602 +28 20 07.490327496   14.31 12.00 11.21   K7 141 0
33 2MASS J04190110+2819420 TT* 04 19 01.1041061433 +28 19 42.084605479           M5.9 54 0
34 2MASS J04190197+2822332 TT* 04 19 01.9773489612 +28 22 33.268594450           M5.5 37 0
35 V* FQ Tau Or* 04 19 12.812616 +28 29 32.98128       15.00   M3 97 0
36 V* BP Tau Or* 04 19 15.8342975037 +29 06 26.929456808   13.13 12.12 11.89   K5/7Ve 599 0
37 WK81 1 TT* 04 19 26.2671630797 +28 26 14.259129093   14.81   12.240   K7 193 1
38 2MASS J04213459+2701388 Y*O 04 21 34.5936907712 +27 01 38.717671105           M5.5e 28 0
39 [MDM2001] CFHT-BD-Tau 10 BD* 04 21 46.3104454321 +26 59 29.396088687           M6IVe 27 0
40 V* RY Tau Or* 04 21 57.4132838427 +28 26 35.533990877 10.82 10.34 9.30 9.67 8.87 K1IV/Ve 648 1
41 HD 283572 Or* 04 21 58.8482823933 +28 18 06.511915195   9.80 9.03 9.14   G5IVe 267 0
42 V* FS Tau Or* 04 22 02.1925017485 +26 57 30.331063489 17.57   14.10 15.63   M3.5e+M0e 257 0
43 EM* LkCa 21 Or* 04 22 03.1462377202 +28 25 39.099044680   10.94       M3/4Ve 76 0
44 IRAS F04192+2647 TT* 04 22 16.7670021430 +26 54 57.171796087 18.78 18.9 17.8     M1IVe 37 0
45 V* FV Tau Or* 04 26 53.5415038432 +26 06 53.942994170 19.58     15.26   K5 125 2
46 [BLH2002] KPNO-Tau 13 TT* 04 26 57.3162958061 +26 06 28.340060968           M5Ve 34 0
47 V* DG Tau Or* 04 27 04.6913654419 +26 06 16.041555299 13.57 13.97 10.50 12.28   K6Ve 923 1
48 LDN 1521D DNe 04 27 46.5 +26 18 52           ~ 214 0
49 [HJS91] 507 TT* 04 29 20.7028522671 +26 33 40.435127204 17.35   14.58     M4 36 0
50 V* GV Tau TT* 04 29 23.7314759229 +24 33 00.216016292 19.20         K7 271 2
51 V* DH Tau Or* 04 29 41.5520056304 +26 32 58.123761109 15.14 14.62 13.10 13.01   M1Ve 263 0
52 V* DI Tau Or* 04 29 42.4736177473 +26 32 49.119618729 16.39 15.20 13.60     M0Ve 194 0
53 [BLH2002] KPNO-Tau 5 BD* 04 29 45.6733565875 +26 30 46.559502443     19.690 19.10 15.08 M7.5Ve 47 0
54 V* IQ Tau Or* 04 29 51.5569553814 +26 06 44.854858369 15.43   13.80 12.28 11.11 M0.5 198 0
55 V* FX Tau Or* 04 30 29.618064 +24 26 45.02724   15.18 13.61 13.21   M4 143 0
56 V* DK Tau A * 04 30 44.2409691803 +26 01 24.730398215           K5Ve 248 0
57 V* DK Tau Or* 04 30 44.243376 +26 01 24.65328 13.32 14.59 13.05 12.08   K7e+K7e 295 0
58 VSS XI-2 TT* 04 31 15.7846772782 +18 20 07.068277320     15.72     M4.25 39 0
59 2MASS J04312405+1800215 TT* 04 31 24.0575671088 +18 00 21.455153686   20.38 18.678   14.32 M7 64 0
60 RAFGL 5123 FU* 04 31 34.07736 +18 08 04.9020           K3V/M3III 811 0
61 EM* LkHA 358 TT* 04 31 36.1396524070 +18 13 43.176961457     19.0     M0.9 87 0
62 V* HL Tau Or* 04 31 38.471952 +18 13 58.08504   15.89 14.49 14.39   K5 1201 0
63 IRAS 04287+1807 mul 04 31 38.8 +18 13 57           ~ 796 0
64 V* XZ Tau Or* 04 31 40.0868968022 +18 13 56.642439056     10.40 13.12   M2e+M2e 408 1
65 2MASS J04314444+1808315 Y*O 04 31 44.44680 +18 08 31.5384           ~ 149 0
66 V* HK Tau Or* 04 31 50.5722969258 +24 24 17.775488652 16.81   15.10     M0.5 295 1
67 V* V710 Tau ** 04 31 57.79848 +18 21 36.9396           ~ 152 0
68 V* V710 Tau A TT* 04 31 57.8032267772 +18 21 34.726898440       13.87   M2/3e 152 0
69 2MASS J04315844+2543299 TT* 04 31 58.4512764298 +25 43 30.018429763     15.96     M4.9 35 0
70 L 1551-51 Or* 04 32 09.2838548075 +17 57 22.695083303   13.29       K7e 118 0
71 V* V827 Tau TT* 04 32 14.5731257511 +18 20 14.719337994   14.00 12.63 12.35   K7Ve 158 0
72 Haro 6-13 Or* 04 32 15.4177438039 +24 28 59.580866027 19.22   17.7     M0 181 1
73 V* V826 Tau TT* 04 32 15.8394065935 +18 01 38.751126168   13.51 12.074   10.312 K7.0 164 0
74 2MASS J04321606+1812464 TT* 04 32 16.0655428266 +18 12 46.383508261   19.20 17.595     M6.5 71 0
75 XEST 03-017 X 04 32 17.83 +24 22 13.1           ~ 2 0
76 V* V928 Tau Or* 04 32 18.8839760967 +24 22 26.713747659 17.65   13.7     M0.5 81 0
77 V* FY Tau Or* 04 32 30.5786392247 +24 19 57.364725369 17.83 18.05 13.49 14.17   M0.1 96 0
78 V* FZ Tau Or* 04 32 31.7629319321 +24 20 03.057541003 16.15     15.04   M0 117 0
79 IRAS 04295+2251 Y*O 04 32 32.05488 +22 57 26.6724           K0-M4 86 0
80 V* UZ Tau ** 04 32 43.02168 +25 52 30.9036           M4Ve+M1/3Ve 285 0
81 JH 112 TT* 04 32 49.1170509526 +22 53 02.847321133 18.81 16.7 15.54 14.60   K5.5 57 0
82 2MASS J04325026+2422115 BD* 04 32 50.2665216453 +24 22 11.670257724         18.79 M7.5 30 0
83 XEST 03-035 X 04 33 01.97 +24 21 02.7           ~ 2 0
84 XEST 04-009 X 04 33 02.02 +24 20 59.0           ~ 2 0
85 V* GH Tau Or* 04 33 06.2181025969 +24 09 33.628411049     13.20 12.59   M3Ve 167 0
86 V* V807 Tau Or* 04 33 06.6303920517 +24 09 55.044051684   12.10 11.21 11.18   K7 130 2
87 [BLH2002] KPNO-Tau 14 Y*O 04 33 07.8106353614 +26 16 06.562720873     20.735     M6Ve 31 0
88 V* V830 Tau TT* 04 33 10.0299730541 +24 33 43.255853678   13.91 12.08 11.30   M0-1 171 1
89 IRAS 04303+2240 Y*O 04 33 19.0746339919 +22 46 34.185095127           M0.5 64 0
90 V* GI Tau Or* 04 33 34.0608378045 +24 21 17.067391746 14.34   13.70 12.15 11.06 K5Ve 250 1
91 V* GK Tau Or* 04 33 34.5626781676 +24 21 05.854541262 15.50   13.00 12.02 10.62 K7:Ve 271 0
92 V* IS Tau Or* 04 33 36.7943820957 +26 09 49.071437296 18.52     14.79   M2.0 114 0
93 V* CI Tau Or* 04 33 52.0144455735 +22 50 30.093741884 14.97 15.09 13.80     K4IVe 261 1
94 V* IT Tau A Y*O 04 33 54.7116513714 +26 13 27.488001999 18.01         K3 17 0
95 2MASS J04341099+2251445 TT* 04 34 10.9942832092 +22 51 44.397944183     15.19     M1.5 41 0
96 2MASS J04341527+2250309 Y*O 04 34 15.2773856137 +22 50 30.804533445     23.427     M7 41 0
97 V* HO Tau Or* 04 35 20.2103777721 +22 32 14.557063236     15.20     M0.5 106 0
98 V* FF Tau Or* 04 35 20.9049286667 +22 54 24.234895403 17.57 15.73       K7 71 1
99 V* DN Tau Or* 04 35 27.3776240781 +24 14 58.908761629 13.56 12.88 11.50 11.79   M1:Ve 348 0
100 NAME CoKu Tau 3 TT* 04 35 40.937952 +24 11 08.49012 20.58         M4.3 91 0
101 [BLH2002] KPNO-Tau 8 Y*O 04 35 41.8388746981 +22 34 11.595178814 20.64   19.261     M6Ve 35 0
102 V* HQ Tau Or* 04 35 47.3327991214 +22 50 21.639107658 15.01 14.15 12.02 11.18   K0 75 0
103 [BLH2002] KPNO-Tau 15 Y*O 04 35 51.0969566842 +22 52 40.063846807 19.75         M3Ve 25 0
104 V* HP Tau Or* 04 35 52.7821592361 +22 54 23.158368128 17.39 14.9 14.90     K2-5e 190 0
105 CoKu HP Tau G2 Or* 04 35 54.1553246504 +22 54 13.404170652 13.63 12.31 11.158 10.14 9.172 G2e 113 0
106 Haro 6-28 Or* 04 35 56.8652987075 +22 54 35.826437972 18.94         M3.1 84 0
107 2MASS J04363893+2258119 BD* 04 36 38.9288541165 +22 58 11.845890661     21.654   16.88 M7.75 45 0
108 2MASS J04390396+2544264 BD* 04 39 03.9603916514 +25 44 26.337817736       18.40 15.40 M7IVe 51 0
109 V* GN Tau Or* 04 39 20.922216 +25 45 02.02608 17.22     13.85   M2.5 85 0
110 IRAS 04365+2535 Y*O 04 39 35.19360 +25 41 44.7252           ~ 237 0
111 IRAS 0437+257P08 TT? 04 39 55.7451364657 +25 45 01.943057594           B5 159 1
112 JH 223 TT* 04 40 49.5107760683 +25 51 18.966786927 18.25     15.09   M2.8 47 0
113 NAME Taurus Complex SFR 04 41.0 +25 52           ~ 3478 0
114 Haro 6-32 TT* 04 41 04.2538699152 +25 57 55.716168108           M5e 39 0
115 Haro 6-33 TT* 04 41 38.8300758211 +25 56 26.681998749     18.40     M0.5 100 2
116 V* V999 Tau Or* 04 42 05.4896906880 +25 22 56.226737601 18.68 15.1 14.7     M0.6 73 0
117 V* V1000 Tau Or* 04 42 07.3316526430 +25 23 02.928347503 19.09 16.1 15.01     M2.5 72 0
118 EM* LkHA 332 Or* 04 42 07.7923691084 +25 23 11.820801806 17.90 16.51       K7+M2.5 142 1
119 2MASS J04422101+2520343 TT* 04 42 21.0213244177 +25 20 34.300467111 18.67         M5.1 45 0
120 V* DP Tau Or* 04 42 37.6996387891 +25 15 36.992730557 15.84 15.2 13.70 14.42   M0.8 154 1
121 V* GO Tau Or* 04 43 03.0761884276 +25 20 18.708294279   16.2 14.40     M2.3 151 0
122 2MASS J04552333+3027366 BD* 04 55 23.3302505842 +30 27 36.538498322           M6e 25 0
123 2MASS J04554046+3039057 Y*O 04 55 40.4630844567 +30 39 05.616572125           M5e 21 0
124 V* AB Aur Ae* 04 55 45.8459978418 +30 33 04.293281305 7.20 7.16 7.05 6.96 6.70 A0Ve 930 2
125 [GBA2007] 2232 X 04 55 47.83 +30 28 05.3           ~ 2 0
126 V* SU Aur Or* 04 55 59.3861369488 +30 34 01.499800471   10.33 9.30 9.17   G2IIIne 532 0
127 V* V397 Aur Or* 04 56 02.0261376554 +30 21 03.635056925   13.07 11.72 11.25   K7e 151 0

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2020.07.06-19:38:38

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