2007A&A...471L..55C


C.D.S. - SIMBAD4 rel 1.7 - 2019.12.12CET13:00:10

2007A&A...471L..55C - Astronomy and Astrophysics, volume 471, L55-58 (2007/9-1)

An ultraluminous supersoft source with a 4-hour modulation in NGC 4631.

CARPANO S., POLLOCK A.M.T., KING A.R., WILMS J. and EHLE M.

Abstract (from CDS):

Supersoft X-ray sources (SSSs) are characterised by very low temperatures (<100eV). Classical SSSs have bolometric luminosities in the range of 1036-1038erg/s and are modelled with steady nuclear burning of hydrogen on the surfaces of white dwarfs. However, several SSSs have been discovered with much higher luminosities. Their nature is still unclear. We report the discovery of a 4h modulation for an ultraluminous SSS in the nearby edge-on spiral galaxy NGC 4631, observed with XMM-Newton in 2002 June. Temporal and spectral analysis of the source is performed.We use a Lomb-Scargle periodogram analysis for the period search and evaluate the confidence level using Monte-Carlo simulations. We measure the source temperature, flux and luminosity through spectral fitting.A modulation of 4.2±0.4h (3σ error) was found for the SSS with a confidence level >99%. Besides dips observed in the light curve, the flux decreased by a factor of 3 within ∼10h. The spectrum can be described with an absorbed blackbody model with kT∼67eV. The absorbed luminosity in the 0.2-2keV energy band was 2.7x1038erg/s while the bolometric luminosity was a hundred time higher (3.2x1040erg/s), making the source one of the most luminous of its class, assuming the best fit model is correct.This source is another very luminous SSS for which the standard white dwarf interpretation cannot be applied, unless a strong beaming factor is considered. A stellar-mass black hole accreting at a super Eddington rate is a more likely interpretation, where the excess of accreted matter is ejected through a strong optically-thick outflow. The 4h modulation could either be an eclipse from the companion star or the consequence of a warped accretion disk.

Abstract Copyright:

Journal keyword(s): galaxies: individual: NGC 4631 - X-rays: galaxies - X-rays: binaries

Nomenclature: Text: [CPK2007] SSS N=1.

CDS comments: Table 1, Fig.4, paragraph 4. NGC 4361 is a probable misprint for NGC 4631.

Simbad objects: 11

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Number of rows : 11

N Identifier Otype ICRS (J2000)
RA
ICRS (J2000)
DEC
Mag U Mag B Mag V Mag R Mag I Sp type #ref
1850 - 2020
#notes
1 M 31 G 00 42 44.330 +41 16 07.50 4.86 4.36 3.44     ~ 10612 1
2 Bol 158 GlC 00 43 14.41 +41 07 21.3 15.900 15.560 14.65 14.150 13.550 ~ 113 1
3 NGC 300 GiG 00 54 53.4460065856 -37 41 03.182962667 8.83 8.69 8.13 7.46   ~ 1272 2
4 M 81 Sy2 09 55 33.17306143 +69 03 55.0609270   7.89 6.94     ~ 3900 5
5 NGC 4038 GiP 12 01 53.002 -18 52 03.32   10.91   9.74 11.0 ~ 1265 1
6 NAME Antennae IG 12 01 53.170 -18 52 37.92           ~ 1537 0
7 NGC 4039 GiP 12 01 53.8 -18 53 06   11.08   9.77   ~ 1124 1
8 NGC 4631 GiP 12 42 08.009 +32 32 29.44   9.78 9.19 9.10   ~ 944 2
9 [CHP2004] J124216.0+323250 X 12 42 16.0 +32 32 50           ~ 12 0
10 M 51 GiP 13 29 52.698 +47 11 42.93   9.26 8.36 8.40   ~ 3696 4
11 M 101 GiP 14 03 12.583 +54 20 55.50   8.46 7.86 7.76   ~ 2479 2

    Equat.    Gal    SGal    Ecl

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2019.12.12-13:00:10

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