2007A&A...473..603M


C.D.S. - SIMBAD4 rel 1.7 - 2020.02.28CET09:38:39

2007A&A...473..603M - Astronomy and Astrophysics, volume 473, 603-614 (2007/10-2)

The empirical metallicity dependence of the mass-loss rate of O- and early B-type stars.

MOKIEM M.R., DE KOTER A., VINK J.S., PULS J., EVANS C.J., SMARTT S.J., CROWTHER P.A., HERRERO A., LANGER N., LENNON D.J., NAJARRO F. and VILLAMARIZ M.R.

Abstract (from CDS):

We present a comprehensive study of the observational dependence of the mass-loss rate in stationary stellar winds of hot massive stars on the metal content of their atmospheres. The metal content of stars in the Magellanic Clouds is discussed, and a critical assessment is given of state-of-the-art mass-loss determinations of OB stars in these two satellite systems and the Milky-Way. Assuming a power-law dependence of mass loss on metal content, {dot}(M)∝Zm, and adopting a theoretical relation between the terminal flow velocity and metal content, v∝ Z0.13 (Leitherer et al., 1992ApJ...401..596L), we find m=0.83±0.16 for non-clumped outflows from an analysis of the wind momentum luminosity relation (WLR) for stars more luminous than 105.2L. Within the errors, this result is in agreement with the prediction m=0.69±0.10 by Vink et al. (2001A&A...369..574V). Absolute empirical values for the mass loss, based on Hα and ultraviolet (UV) wind lines, are found to be a factor of two higher than predictions in this high luminosity regime. If this difference is attributed to inhomogeneities in the wind, and this clumping does not impact the predictions, this would imply that luminous O and early-B stars have clumping factors in their Hα and UV line forming regions of about a factor of four. For lower luminosity stars, the winds are so weak that their strengths can generally no longer be derived from optical spectral lines (essentially Hα) and one must currently rely on the analysis of UV lines. We confirm that in this low-luminosity domain the observed Galactic WLR is found to be much steeper than expected from theory (although the specific sample is rather small), leading to a discrepancy between UV mass-loss rates and the predictions by a factor 100 at luminosities of L∼104.75L, the origin of which is unknown. We emphasize that even if the current mass-loss rates of hot luminous stars would turn out to be overestimated as a result of wind clumping, but the degree of clumping would be rather independent of metallicity, the scalings derived in this study are expected to remain correct.

Abstract Copyright:

Journal keyword(s): stars: early-type - Magellanic Clouds - stars: winds, outflows - stars: evolution - stars: mass-loss

CDS comments: Table A.2 HD 2670952 is a misprint for HD 270952.

Simbad objects: 123

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Number of rows : 123

N Identifier Otype ICRS (J2000)
RA
ICRS (J2000)
DEC
Mag U Mag B Mag V Mag R Mag I Sp type #ref
1850 - 2020
#notes
1 SK 10 s*b 00 46 42.1589052355 -73 24 55.493791820 11.903 12.984 13.176   13.35 O6.5I(f) 39 0
2 BBB SMC 266 s*b 00 47 50.0479771506 -73 08 21.054254136   12.35 12.55 12.36   O6I(f) 62 0
3 BBB SMC 1 * 00 50 17.2062292889 -72 53 30.261075405 12.093 13.144 13.326 13.39 13.47 OC7.5III((f)) 40 0
4 SK 35 * 00 50 18.1231442166 -72 38 10.034205556 11.04 10.96 12.40   12.12 O9.5Ib 38 0
5 LIN 156 s*b 00 50 32.4054204297 -72 52 36.444460019 11.553 12.604 12.756   12.89 O5.5I(f) 46 0
6 AzV 83 s*b 00 50 52.0009104477 -72 42 14.942933567 12.233 13.244 13.366   13.67 O7Iaf+ 42 0
7 AzV 95 * 00 51 21.5997393360 -72 44 14.875524423 12.67 13.64 13.83   13.95 O7III((f)) 34 0
8 AzV 104 s*b 00 51 38.4280173584 -72 48 06.081256145 12.053 13.064 13.226   13.57 B0.5Ia 28 0
9 NAME SMC G 00 52 38.0 -72 48 01   2.79 2.2     ~ 9240 1
10 AzV 186 * 00 57 26.9388728646 -72 33 13.560551338 12.66 13.88 13.86   14.15 O8III((f)) 23 0
11 AzV 202 * 00 58 14.4681951686 -72 07 29.551543096 13.12 14.18 14.34   14.52 B1Ib 15 0
12 SK 76 s*b 00 58 55.6261672908 -72 32 08.470311732 11.64 12.65 12.75   12.84 BN0Ia 39 0
13 Cl* NGC 346 ELS 7 * 00 58 57.3952116864 -72 10 33.661396129 12.68 13.82 14.13   14.28 O4V((f+)) 48 0
14 Cl* NGC 346 W 3 * 00 59 00.7582411392 -72 10 28.171999499 11.46 12.61 12.80   13.63 O2III(f) 57 0
15 Cl* NGC 346 NMC 28 * 00 59 01.799 -72 10 31.23   13.95 14.18     O5.5V((f+)) 27 0
16 [MA93] 1125 Em* 00 59 11.646 -72 09 57.52   14.82 15.07 15.34   O5.5V 22 0
17 AzV 226 * 00 59 20.7287691158 -72 17 10.615963093 12.97 14.12 14.19     O7IIIn((f)) 24 0
18 SK 80 s*b 00 59 31.9755771921 -72 10 46.109784216   12.12 12.31     O7Iaf+ 104 0
19 RMC 17 s*b 00 59 45.7300699553 -72 44 56.416317043   12.02 12.2     B1Ia 62 0
20 SK 84 * 01 00 06.7254391957 -72 47 19.125602155 12.58 13.71 13.91   14.16 O6V 40 0
21 RMC 18 s*b 01 00 06.8833640311 -72 13 57.373993872   11.7 11.5     B1Ia 61 0
22 AzV 296 * 01 02 08.6474233441 -72 13 20.015253165 13.01 14.19 14.38   14.62 O7.5V((f)) 17 0
23 AzV 304 * 01 02 21.4818321206 -72 39 14.588838933   14.66 14.77     B0.5V 46 0
24 SK 116 s*b 01 04 55.7399449710 -72 46 48.149096337 11.413 12.494 12.646     O9Iabw 30 0
25 AzV 388 * 01 05 39.5300741914 -72 29 26.938445353 12.79 13.86 14.12   14.37 O5V 37 0
26 SK 131 s*b 01 07 32.6014662185 -72 17 38.749449788 11.903 12.974 13.146     B0.5Ia 19 0
27 AzV 435 * 01 08 17.9030202411 -71 59 54.337924582 12.93 13.98 14.11   13.97 O3V((f*)) 16 0
28 SK 143 * 01 10 55.7240228183 -72 42 56.119467414 12.15 12.98 12.89 12.78 11.64 O9.7Ib 72 0
29 SK 148 * 01 12 29.0069137975 -72 29 29.052551304 11.913 13.014 13.176   13.32 O8.5II((f)) 39 0
30 SK 159 s*b 01 15 58.8782438100 -73 21 24.354475568 10.80 11.77 11.90     B0Ia 69 0
31 HD 14947 s*b 02 26 46.9895793276 +58 52 33.116841083 7.83 8.44 7.98     O4.5If 236 0
32 HD 15558 Y*O 02 32 42.5366735903 +61 27 21.582983306 7.82 8.37 7.87 7.34 6.94 O4.5III(f) 292 0
33 HD 15629 Y*O 02 33 20.5872248837 +61 31 18.187980136 8.23 8.85 8.42     O4.5V((fc)) 216 0
34 NAME Magellanic Clouds GrG 03 00 -71.0           ~ 5505 1
35 HD 18409 * 03 00 29.7124978937 +62 43 19.051679706 9.832 8.72 8.40     O9.7Ib 67 0
36 * ksi Per ** 03 58 57.9022917 +35 47 27.713205 3.190 4.080 4.060 3.88 3.89 O7.5III(n)((f)) 788 0
37 * alf Cam s*b 04 54 03.0103983 +66 20 33.636467 3.47 4.34 4.29 4.18 4.18 O9Ia 635 1
38 SK -66 15 * 04 55 22.3467574781 -66 28 19.098729637 11.888 12.660 12.894   12.759 B0.5Ia 15 0
39 SK -66 16 * 04 55 29.4149795029 -66 23 12.244972977 11.605 12.361 12.461   11.908 O9.7Ib 12 0
40 [ELS2006] N11 058 * 04 55 52.3580778754 -66 34 13.578379045 13.090 13.953 14.197   14.422 O5.5V((f)) 8 0
41 [ELS2006] N11 029 * 04 55 56.3300648375 -66 29 04.281485315   13.51 13.63     OC9.7Ib 10 0
42 SK -66 18 * 04 55 59.8223175692 -65 58 29.733466248 12.394 13.294 13.467   13.725 O6V((f)) 15 0
43 [ELS2006] N11 068 * 04 56 04.6017531938 -66 23 58.016984839 13.496 14.377 14.545   14.657 O7V((f)) 9 0
44 [L72] LH 9-89 * 04 56 11.0181680111 -66 28 24.362661410 12.580 13.531 13.645   13.837 B0IIIn 10 0
45 PGMW 1017 * 04 56 15.5466559821 -66 27 21.279164707   13.7 13.93     B0III 11 0
46 [ELS2006] N11 051 * 04 56 29.6991219110 -66 21 38.865891354 12.909 13.812 13.990   14.173 O5Vn((f)) 9 0
47 PGMW 3058 * 04 56 42.146 -66 24 54.61 12.901 14.092 14.089   13.991 O3V((f*)) 16 0
48 [L72] LH 10-3061 * 04 56 42.460 -66 25 18.09 12.699 13.595 13.491   13.405 ON2III(f*) 25 0
49 PGMW 3100 * 04 56 45.2038993380 -66 25 10.779707928 13.007 13.736 13.648   13.547 O5III(f+) 12 0
50 [ELS2006] N11 026 * 04 56 52.5285896229 -66 19 56.232359011 12.646 13.405 13.580     O2.5III(f*) 14 0
51 PGMW 3168 * 04 56 54.4601951589 -66 24 15.871362997   13.57 13.68     O7II(f) 16 0
52 [ELS2006] N11 066 * 04 56 57.5053052609 -66 35 21.667466092 13.286 14.211 14.362   14.618 O7V((f)) 8 0
53 [ELS2006] N11 045 * 04 56 58.3150366846 -66 31 33.332893037   13.82 13.97     O9-9.5III 8 0
54 [ELS2006] N11 061 * 04 57 25.7198813633 -66 21 05.742989591 13.418 14.233 14.231   14.208 O9V 8 0
55 Brey 10a WR* 04 57 27.4549113851 -67 39 02.868479987 12.213 13.314 13.496   13.564 O2If*/WN5 51 1
56 HD 270952 WR* 05 01 23.0763030544 -65 52 33.203698483 10.944 11.871 12.07   12.187 O6Iaf+ 50 0
57 SK -70 69 * 05 05 18.6719268373 -70 25 49.876064190 12.586 13.616 13.854   14.074 O3V(f) 38 0
58 HD 269050 s*b 05 07 20.4220012957 -68 32 08.572354312 10.593 11.581 11.54 11.46 11.55 B0Ia(e?) 61 0
59 HD 34078 Or* 05 16 18.1489437436 +34 18 44.347016027 5.48 6.18 5.96     O9.5V 521 1
60 SK -65 47 s*b 05 20 54.7193855739 -65 27 17.882181106 11.451 12.270 12.466   12.741 O4If 17 0
61 NAME LMC G 05 23 34.6 -69 45 22     0.4     ~ 14558 1
62 [GMP94] 496 * 05 26 44.2108 -68 48 42.116   13.50 13.73     O5V(f) 9 0
63 SK -66 100 * 05 27 45.4472881165 -66 55 15.296369854 12.227 12.976 13.204   13.501 O6II(f) 43 0
64 W61 16-8 * 05 28 46.9223603487 -68 47 47.799613299 12.283 13.444 13.666   13.854 ON2III(f*) 18 0
65 NGC 2004 Cl* 05 30 41.340 -67 17 21.83   9.6       ~ 257 0
66 HD 269698 s*b 05 31 44.2083142709 -67 38 01.378514813 9.520 12.00 12.22 12.47 11.167 O4Ia 108 0
67 W61 28-5 * 05 34 28.4649259443 -69 43 56.833684161 12.795 13.630 13.774   14.063 O4V(f+) 10 0
68 W61 28-23 * 05 34 50.1540862374 -69 46 32.546327882 12.698 13.596 13.702   13.752 O3.5V(f+) 12 0
69 [M2002] LMC 163521 * 05 35 45.2600 -69 11 35.105   14.11 14.3     O3.5III(f+) 10 0
70 * eps Ori s*b 05 36 12.81335 -01 12 06.9089 0.48 1.51 1.69 1.76 1.93 B0Ia 856 0
71 BI 237 * 05 36 14.6329670483 -67 39 19.168530216 12.865 13.790 13.830   13.948 O2V(f*) 32 0
72 SK -66 169 s*b 05 36 54.6614257665 -66 38 22.426839132   12.43 12.56     O9.7Ia+ 31 0
73 HD 269896 s*b 05 37 49.1360518133 -68 55 01.642483154 11.338 9.493 11.449 11.49   ON9.7Ia+ 78 0
74 [HSH95] 33 * 05 38 42.2113 -69 06 00.983     14.43     O3V 7 0
75 SSTISAGEMC J053842.37-690615.0 * 05 38 42.4988 -69 06 15.403           O4If+ 6 0
76 Cl* NGC 2070 MH 551 * 05 38 42.52 -69 06 03.8   14.64 14.81     O3V 12 0
77 Cl* NGC 2070 MH 859 * 05 38 44.2218 -69 05 56.973   13.67       O3III(f+) 23 1
78 W61 3-24 * 05 39 13.5538821822 -69 30 05.014710179   14.48 14.6     O3.5V(f+) 9 0
79 * mu. Col V* 05 45 59.8953630749 -32 18 23.164726112 3.84 4.90 5.18 5.30 5.57 O9.5V 455 0
80 * kap Ori s*b 05 47 45.3888404 -09 40 10.577707 0.87 1.88 2.06 2.09 2.27 B0.5Ia 545 0
81 HD 42088 * 06 09 39.5726383124 +20 29 15.455220620 6.73 7.58 7.57 8.45   O6V((f))z 231 0
82 HD 46223 * 06 32 09.3066083011 +04 49 24.707398183 6.73 7.50 7.28 6.95 6.79 O4V((f)) 350 0
83 HD 46202 ** 06 32 10.4728 +04 57 59.818 7.60 8.36 8.19 7.98 7.86 O9.2V 254 0
84 * zet Pup BY* 08 03 35.04754 -40 00 11.3321 0.89 1.98 2.25 2.36 2.58 O4I(n)fp 1087 1
85 NAME Leo Dwarf Irregular Galaxy G 09 59 26.46 +30 44 47.0 14.08 13.54 13.26 13.33   ~ 542 0
86 NAME Sex A H2G 10 11 00.5 -04 41 30 12.48 12.13 11.93 11.78   ~ 645 2
87 HD 91943 Pu* 10 35 42.0070286836 -58 11 34.375764723 5.91 6.74 6.70 7.70   B0.7Ib 95 0
88 HD 91969 * 10 35 49.3175809360 -58 13 27.411203873 5.57 6.41 6.43 7.56   B0Ib 104 0
89 HD 93028 SB* 10 43 15.3392956864 -60 12 04.229601354 7.29 8.24 8.30 9.26   O9IV 149 0
90 HD 93128 SB* 10 43 54.3955430232 -59 32 57.496584258 8.82 8.97 8.77 9.40 8.71 O3.5V((fc))z 83 1
91 HD 93129 ** 10 43 57.486 -59 32 51.44 6.26 7.06 6.90     O2If*+O3.5V((f)) 188 1
92 HD 93146A * 10 44 00.1578 -60 05 09.863 7.57 8.48 8.45     O7V((f))z 79 0
93 HD 93146 ** 10 44 00.159 -60 05 09.88   8.25 8.24 9.28   O6V+O9.5V 81 0
94 HD 93204 * 10 44 32.3390160673 -59 44 31.020859370 7.63 8.52 8.42 8.20 7.92 O5.5V((f)) 171 0
95 HD 93250 * 10 44 45.0270200315 -59 33 54.681395850 6.73 8.12 7.50 8.38   O4III(fc) 290 0
96 * eta Car Em* 10 45 03.5455050 -59 41 03.951060 6.37 7.034 6.21 4.90 4.41 OBepec 2173 0
97 HD 303308 ** 10 45 05.9146041531 -59 40 05.922859453 7.45 8.30 8.17 7.92 7.75 O4.5V((fc)) 278 0
98 HD 94909 s*b 10 56 24.4659629041 -57 33 04.826803339 7.31 7.82 7.34 8.13   B0Ia 64 0
99 UGC 8091 H2G 12 58 40.1930291852 +14 13 00.737117016 15.24 15.16 14.98 14.81   ~ 434 0
100 HD 115842 Em* 13 20 48.3389216362 -55 48 02.482627552 5.70 6.39 6.09 5.77 5.52 B0.5Ia/ab 141 0
101 HD 122879 V* 14 06 25.1577457205 -59 42 57.253857893 5.90 6.64 6.50 6.33 6.18 B0Ia 156 1
102 * tau Sco * 16 35 52.9528530 -28 12 57.661515 1.55 2.56 2.81 2.93 3.18 B0.2V 849 0
103 * zet Oph Be* 16 37 09.5390545 -10 34 01.529471 1.73 2.58 2.56 2.46 2.50 O9.2IVnn 1718 2
104 HD 152234 s*b 16 54 01.8374467 -41 48 23.007764 4.92 5.64 5.45     B0.5Ia 179 0
105 HD 190864 Em* 20 05 39.8022905765 +35 36 27.989246210 7.18 7.93 7.78     O6.5III(f) 210 0
106 HD 192639 s*b 20 14 30.4275040181 +37 21 13.815126140 6.83 7.46 7.11     O7.5Iabf 268 0
107 HD 193514 Em* 20 19 08.4971406843 +39 16 24.252177258 7.32 7.83 7.38     O7Ib(f) 178 0
108 HD 193682 Em* 20 20 08.9388640366 +37 49 51.312274703 8.44 8.87 8.42     O4.5IV(f) 80 0
109 Schulte 2 V* 20 31 22.0268723645 +41 31 28.363066323 12.01 11.82 10.64     B1Ib: 53 0
110 BD+40 4219 * 20 32 13.8220814591 +41 27 12.005606749 11.50 11.40 10.22     O7III((f)) 102 0
111 Schulte 7 * 20 33 14.1095790591 +41 20 21.903381641 12.24 12.00 10.55     O3If* 127 0
112 BD+40 4227A SB* 20 33 15.0780900764 +41 18 50.478859468 10.42 10.27 8.98 8.03 6.83 O6Ib(fc)+O4.5:III:(fc) 213 0
113 Schulte 8C * 20 33 17.9821559015 +41 18 31.192311433 12.2 11.43 10.19     O4.5III(fc) 73 0
114 BD+41 3804 s*b 20 33 46.1097446575 +41 33 00.958715569 11.82 11.41 9.88     O9.7Iab 91 0
115 BD+41 3807 SB* 20 34 08.5147839926 +41 36 59.407506888 11.74 11.52 10.03     O5.5Ifc 111 0
116 * 68 Cyg SB* 21 18 27.1855667264 +43 56 45.388423736 4.05 4.99 5.00     O7.5IIIn((f)) 359 0
117 HD 207198 * 21 44 53.2790298387 +62 27 38.042162728 5.61 6.25 5.94 5.66 5.49 O8.5II 321 0
118 * 19 Cep ** 22 05 08.7884887056 +62 16 47.323982519 4.36 5.19 5.11 4.95 4.92 O9Ib 362 0
119 * lam Cep s*b 22 11 30.5750839949 +59 24 52.147736074 4.55 5.29 5.05 4.77 4.62 O6.5I(n)fp 644 1
120 HD 210809 s*b 22 11 38.6004905633 +52 25 47.950552363 6.7 7.61 7.56     O9Iab 194 0
121 * 10 Lac ** 22 39 15.6786372 +39 03 00.971152 3.650 4.670 4.880 4.98 5.19 O9V 717 0
122 HD 217086 Y*O 22 56 47.19030 +62 43 37.6487 7.88 8.30 7.66     O7Vnn((f))z 241 0
123 NAME Local Group GrG ~ ~           ~ 6808 0

    Equat.    Gal    SGal    Ecl

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2020.02.28-09:38:39

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