2009A&A...495..677O


C.D.S. - SIMBAD4 rel 1.7 - 2019.12.12CET20:57:39

2009A&A...495..677O - Astronomy and Astrophysics, volume 495, 677-690 (2009/2-4)

Optimization of mapping modes for heterodyne instruments.

OSSENKOPF V.

Abstract (from CDS):

Astronomic line mapping with single-pixel heterodyne instruments is usually performed in an on-the-fly (OTF) or a raster-mapping mode depending on the capabilities of the telescope and the instrument. The observing efficiency can be increased by combining several source-point integrations with a common reference measurement. This is implemented at many telescopes, but a thorough investigation of the optimum calibration of the modes and the best way of performing these observations is still lacking. We derive optimum mapping strategies and the corresponding calibration schemes based on the known instrumental performance in terms of system stability and slew times. We use knowledge of the instrumental stability obtained by an Allan variance measurement to derive a mathematical formalism for optimizing the setup of mapping observations. Special attention has to be paid to minimizing of the impact of correlated noise introduced by the common OFF integrations and to the correction of instrumental drifts. Both aspects can be covered using a calibration scheme that interpolates between two OFF measurements and an appropriate OFF integration time. The total uncertainty of the calibrated data consisting of radiometric noise and drift noise can be minimized by adjusting the source integration time and the number of data points observed between two OFF measurements. It turns out that OTF observations are very robust. They provide a low relative noise, even if their setup deviates considerably from the optimum. Fast data readouts are often essential to minimize the drift contributions. In particular, continuum measurements may be easily spoiled by instrumental drifts. The main drawback of the described mapping modes is the limited use of the measured data at different spatial or spectroscopic resolutions obtained by additional rebinning.

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Journal keyword(s): methods: data analysis - methods: statistical - techniques: image processing

Simbad objects: 1

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Number of rows : 1

N Identifier Otype ICRS (J2000)
RA
ICRS (J2000)
DEC
Mag U Mag B Mag V Mag R Mag I Sp type #ref
1850 - 2020
#notes
1 NAME Cyg X Cld 20 28 41 +41 10.2           ~ 591 1

    Equat.    Gal    SGal    Ecl

C.D.S. - SIMBAD4 rel 1.7 - 2019.12.12CET20:57:39

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Basic data :
NAME Cyg X -- Cloud
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(Ref) Object type as listed in the reference "Ref"
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() Anterior to 2007, before we can link the objet type to a reference, or given by the CDS team in some particular cases

Other object types:
SFR (), Cld (), gam (3FGL,1FHL,...)
Syntax of coordinates is : "ra dec (wtype) [error ellipse] quality bibcode" :
  • ra dec : right ascension and declination (unit and frame defined according to your Output Options)
    Grey values are increasing the original precision due to the computation of frame transformations
  • (wtype) : wavelength class for the origin of the coordinates (Rad, mm, IR, Optical, UV, Xray, Gam)
  • [error ellipse] : measurement uncertainty, on (ra,dec) if the positional angle is 90 degrees, on (majaxis,minaxis) otherwise (in mas at defined epoch in the original catalogue),
    position angle (in degrees North celestial pole to East)
  • quality : flag of quality
    • E ≥ 10"
    • D : 1-10" (and some old data)
    • C : 0.1-1"
    • B : 0.01-0.1" + 2MASS, Tyc
    • A : VLBI, Hipparcos
  • bibcode : bibcode of the coordinates reference
ICRS coord. (ep=J2000) :
20 28 40.8 +41 10 12 (Gamma-ray) [ ] E 2013ApJS..209...34A
Syntax of coordinates is : "ra dec (wtype) [error ellipse] quality bibcode" :
  • ra dec : right ascension and declination (unit and frame defined according to your Output Options)
    Grey values are increasing the original precision due to the computation of frame transformations
  • (wtype) : wavelength class for the origin of the coordinates (Rad, mm, IR, Optical, UV, Xray, Gam)
  • [error ellipse] : measurement uncertainty, on (ra,dec) if the positional angle is 90 degrees, on (majaxis,minaxis) otherwise (in mas at defined epoch in the original catalogue),
    position angle (in degrees North celestial pole to East)
  • quality : flag of quality
    • E ≥ 10"
    • D : 1-10" (and some old data)
    • C : 0.1-1"
    • B : 0.01-0.1" + 2MASS, Tyc
    • A : VLBI, Hipparcos
  • bibcode : bibcode of the coordinates reference
FK4 coord. (ep=B1950 eq=1950) :
20 26 53.6 +41 00 10 [ ]
Syntax of coordinates is : "ra dec (wtype) [error ellipse] quality bibcode" :
  • ra dec : right ascension and declination (unit and frame defined according to your Output Options)
    Grey values are increasing the original precision due to the computation of frame transformations
  • (wtype) : wavelength class for the origin of the coordinates (Rad, mm, IR, Optical, UV, Xray, Gam)
  • [error ellipse] : measurement uncertainty, on (ra,dec) if the positional angle is 90 degrees, on (majaxis,minaxis) otherwise (in mas at defined epoch in the original catalogue),
    position angle (in degrees North celestial pole to East)
  • quality : flag of quality
    • E ≥ 10"
    • D : 1-10" (and some old data)
    • C : 0.1-1"
    • B : 0.01-0.1" + 2MASS, Tyc
    • A : VLBI, Hipparcos
  • bibcode : bibcode of the coordinates reference
Gal coord. (ep=J2000) :
079.6007 +01.3963 [ ]
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NAME Cyg X 1FHL J2028.6+4110 3FHL J2028.6+4110e NAME Cygnus Cocoon
3FGL J2028.6+4110e 2FHL J2028.6+4110e NAME Cygnus X

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2019.12.12-20:57:39

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