2009A&A...496..177D


Query : 2009A&A...496..177D

2009A&A...496..177D - Astronomy and Astrophysics, volume 496, 177-190 (2009/3-2)

Star formation around RCW 120, the perfect bubble.

DEHARVENG L., ZAVAGNO A., SCHULLER F., CAPLAN J., POMARES M. and DE BREUCK C.

Abstract (from CDS):

This study deals with the star formation triggered by Hii regions. We wish to take advantage of the very simple morphology of RCW 120 - a perfect bubble - to understand the mechanisms triggering star formation around an Hii region and to establish what kind of stars are formed there. We present 870µm observations of RCW 120, obtained with the APEX-LABOCA camera. These show the distribution of cold dust, and thus of neutral material. We use Spitzer-MIPS observations at 24µm and 70µm to detect the young stellar objects present in this region and to estimate their evolutionary stages. A layer of dense neutral material surrounds the entire HII region, having been swept up during the region's expansion. This layer has a mass greater than 2000 M and is fragmented, with massive fragments elongated along the ionization front (IF). We measured the 24µm flux of 138 sources. Of these, 39 are Class I or flat-spectrum young stellar objects (YSOs) observed in the direction of the collected layer. We show that several triggering mechanisms are acting simultaneously in the swept-up shell, where they form a second generation of stars. No massive YSOs are detected. However, a massive, compact 870µm core lies adjacent to the IF. A 70µm source with no 24µm counterpart is detected at the same position. This source is a likely candidate for a Class 0 YSO. Also at 24µm, we detect a chain of about ten regularly spaced Class I or flat spectrum sources, parallel to the IF, in the direction of the most massive fragment. We suggest that the formation of these YSOs is the result of Jeans gravitational instabilities in the collected layer. Finally, the 870 µm emission, the 24 µm emission, and the Hα emission show the existence of an extended and partially ionized photodissociation region around RCW 120. This demonstrates the long-distance influence of the HII region upon its surrounding medium.

Abstract Copyright:

Journal keyword(s): stars: formation - stars: early-type - ISM: HII regions - ISM: individual objects: RCW 120

VizieR on-line data: <Available at CDS (J/A+A/496/177): table1.dat>

Nomenclature: Table 1: [DZS2009] NNN (Nos 1-138). Table 2: [DZS2009] Condensation N (Nos 1-9), [DZS2009] Condensation 1 core, [DZS2009] Condensation 2 bis, [DZS2009] Condensation N aN N=-. Table 2: [ZPD2007] CN (No. 9) added.

Simbad objects: 151

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Number of rows : 151
N Identifier Otype ICRS (J2000)
RA
ICRS (J2000)
DEC
Mag U Mag B Mag V Mag R Mag I Sp type #ref
1850 - 2022
#notes
1 2MASS J17112047-3841008 Y*O 17 11 20.479 -38 41 00.80           ~ 2 0
2 2MASS J17112339-3841391 Y*O 17 11 23.3851512240 -38 41 39.155341524           ~ 2 0
3 HD 155133 * 17 11 26.0007690048 -38 24 41.942855736   10.97 9.19     K2 9 0
4 2MASS J17112612-3826177 * 17 11 26.1250256136 -38 26 17.854996416           ~ 1 0
5 2MASS J17112829-3821533 Y*O 17 11 28.290 -38 21 53.36           ~ 2 0
6 2MASS J17112840-3840240 * 17 11 28.4083779000 -38 40 24.082993416           ~ 1 0
7 2MASS J17113229-3828072 * 17 11 32.298 -38 28 07.29           ~ 1 0
8 2MASS J17113354-3824433 * 17 11 33.542 -38 24 43.33           ~ 1 0
9 2MASS J17113439-3819339 Y*O 17 11 34.391 -38 19 33.90           ~ 2 0
10 2MASS J17113657-3824148 Y*O 17 11 36.575 -38 24 14.82           ~ 2 0
11 2MASS J17113751-3820573 Y*O 17 11 37.5151799952 -38 20 57.525173808           ~ 2 0
12 2MASS J17113931-3827049 Y*O 17 11 39.317 -38 27 04.98           ~ 4 0
13 2MASS J17113985-3826078 * 17 11 39.8604976176 -38 26 07.883072376           ~ 1 0
14 2MASS J17114183-3836473 Y*O 17 11 41.833 -38 36 47.36           ~ 1 0
15 2MASS J17114312-3832338 Y*O 17 11 43.124 -38 32 33.86           ~ 1 0
16 2MASS J17114491-3821026 Y*O 17 11 44.9212153200 -38 21 02.653274880           ~ 2 0
17 2MASS J17114519-3836151 * 17 11 45.1978357920 -38 36 15.143839560           ~ 1 0
18 SSTGLMC G348.2919+00.6439 Y*O 17 11 48.4277 -38 19 46.757           ~ 3 0
19 2MASS J17114905-3824053 Y*O 17 11 49.059 -38 24 05.35           ~ 4 0
20 SSTGLMC G348.2949+00.6426 Y*O 17 11 49.2920 -38 19 40.893           ~ 4 0
21 2MASS J17114934-3830076 * 17 11 49.3432334616 -38 30 07.583684976           ~ 2 0
22 [DZS2009] Condensation 6 IR 17 11 49.5 -38 19 59           ~ 3 0
23 2MASS J17114981-3812574 Y*O 17 11 49.818 -38 12 57.45           ~ 2 0
24 IRAS 17084-3816 Y*O 17 11 50.705 -38 19 55.34           ~ 6 0
25 SSTGLMC G348.1306+00.5135 Y*O 17 11 51.5185 -38 32 12.619           ~ 4 0
26 [DZS2009] Condensation 9 IR 17 11 54.2 -38 16 53           ~ 2 0
27 2MASS J17115602-3817447 Y*O 17 11 56.028 -38 17 44.73           ~ 1 0
28 2MASS J17115607-3812220 * 17 11 56.071 -38 12 22.03           ~ 1 0
29 2MASS J17115692-3815324 Y*O 17 11 56.924 -38 15 32.49           ~ 1 0
30 2MASS J17115709-3835449 * 17 11 57.100 -38 35 44.90           ~ 1 0
31 2MASS J17115721-3825178 Y*O 17 11 57.215 -38 25 17.80           ~ 3 0
32 [DZS2009] 58 Y*O 17 11 57.3047 -38 29 06.263           ~ 2 0
33 2MASS J17115769-3837475 * 17 11 57.697 -38 37 47.54           ~ 1 0
34 2MASS J17115802-3836053 * 17 11 58.027 -38 36 05.32           ~ 1 0
35 [DZS2009] Condensation 7 IR 17 11 59.5 -38 28 25           ~ 3 0
36 [DZS2009] 32 Y*O 17 12 00.0220 -38 33 23.673           ~ 2 0
37 2MASS J17120091-3831400 Y*O 17 12 00.920 -38 31 40.02           ~ 4 0
38 2MASS J17120312-3835063 * 17 12 03.124 -38 35 06.38           ~ 1 0
39 2MASS J17120387-3834383 * 17 12 03.8714247456 -38 34 38.337298860           ~ 1 0
40 [ZPD2007] 2C1 Y*O 17 12 04.3652 -38 30 32.327           ~ 3 0
41 [DZS2009] 48 Y*O 17 12 05.0537 -38 30 53.037           ~ 1 0
42 [DZS2009] 53 Y*O 17 12 05.5005 -38 30 34.511           ~ 3 0
43 2MASS J17120567-3828177 Y*O 17 12 05.678 -38 28 17.80           ~ 3 0
44 [DZS2009] 8 Y*O 17 12 05.7861 -38 41 25.739           ~ 1 0
45 2MASS J17120627-3830433 Y*O 17 12 06.272 -38 30 43.38           ~ 2 0
46 2MASS J17120676-3827256 Y*O 17 12 06.7747190976 -38 27 25.623440532           ~ 2 0
47 2MASS J17120732-3825286 * 17 12 07.324 -38 25 28.65           ~ 1 0
48 2MASS J17120742-3841268 AB* 17 12 07.422 -38 41 26.84           O-rich 2 0
49 2MASS J17120758-3830561 Y*O 17 12 07.582 -38 30 56.15           ~ 2 0
50 2MASS J17120796-3830513 Y*? 17 12 07.970 -38 30 51.39           ~ 3 0
51 SSTGLMC G348.1609+00.4690 Y*O 17 12 08.0347 -38 32 19.128           ~ 5 0
52 [DZS2009] Condensation 1 IR 17 12 08.3 -38 30 51           ~ 3 0
53 [DZS2009] 47 Y*O 17 12 08.8110 -38 30 53.902           ~ 2 0
54 [DZS2009] 40 Y*O 17 12 08.9136 -38 31 36.940           ~ 1 0
55 [ZPD2007] 8C1 Y*O 17 12 09.0820 -38 31 05.300           ~ 3 0
56 2MASS J17120955-3831177 Y*O 17 12 09.556 -38 31 17.78           ~ 2 0
57 2MASS J17120975-3812166 Y*O 17 12 09.758 -38 12 16.69           ~ 1 0
58 2MASS J17121061-3831348 Y*O 17 12 10.610 -38 31 34.84           ~ 3 0
59 [DZS2009] 38 Y*O 17 12 10.9204 -38 31 59.696           ~ 4 0
60 2MASS J17121356-3834049 * 17 12 13.5698557704 -38 34 04.964358576           ~ 1 0
61 HD 322909 * 17 12 14.3356198824 -38 17 04.664184324   10.64 9.04     A 4 0
62 2MASS J17121479-3837255 * 17 12 14.7987254328 -38 37 25.543246764           ~ 1 0
63 HD 155275 * 17 12 16.7494500624 -38 24 24.781748472   9.88 8.05     M0III 7 0
64 [DZS2009] Condensation 8 IR 17 12 20.0 -38 34 05           ~ 3 0
65 2MASS J17122008-3842509 Y*O 17 12 20.088 -38 42 50.98           ~ 3 0
66 2MASS J17122029-3813104 Y*O 17 12 20.2865331696 -38 13 10.589047248           ~ 1 0
67 IRAS 17089-3814 OH* 17 12 21.20832 -38 18 20.4588           O-rich 9 1
68 [CPA2006] S7 bub 17 12 22.11 -38 27 07.2           ~ 8 0
69 2MASS J17122240-3832526 * 17 12 22.410 -38 32 52.62           ~ 1 0
70 2MASS J17122262-3818375 Y*O 17 12 22.625 -38 18 37.50           ~ 2 0
71 2MASS J17122268-3820512 Y*O 17 12 22.687 -38 20 51.27           ~ 3 0
72 2MASS J17122332-3816348 Y*O 17 12 23.329 -38 16 34.88           ~ 2 0
73 IRAS 17089-3834 Y*O 17 12 23.825 -38 37 55.05           ~ 3 0
74 SH 2-3 HII 17 12.4 -38 28           ~ 187 1
75 2MASS J17122839-3830488 Y*O 17 12 28.395 -38 30 48.86           ~ 3 0
76 2MASS J17123068-3842218 * 17 12 30.6852849960 -38 42 21.837833208           ~ 1 0
77 2MASS J17123117-3836385 Y*O 17 12 31.171 -38 36 38.54           ~ 1 0
78 IRAS 17090-3840 AB* 17 12 31.7083135920 -38 43 49.431308988           O-rich 2 0
79 2MASS J17123222-3811284 Y*O 17 12 32.2183987416 -38 11 28.453681716           ~ 1 0
80 2MASS J17123250-3827533 AB* 17 12 32.505 -38 27 53.37           O-rich 4 0
81 2MASS J17123298-3812318 Y*O 17 12 32.9035442784 -38 12 32.166806832           ~ 1 0
82 [DZS2009] Condensation 5 IR 17 12 33.0 -38 20 00           ~ 3 0
83 2MASS J17123326-3822070 Y*O 17 12 33.2576818368 -38 22 07.091021640           ~ 2 0
84 [DZS2009] 50 Y*O 17 12 33.5230 -38 30 49.384           ~ 4 0
85 2MASS J17123365-3819523 Y*O 17 12 33.652 -38 19 52.32           ~ 5 0
86 [DZS2009] Condensation 2 IR 17 12 33.9 -38 30 49           ~ 3 0
87 2MASS J17123492-3832392 * 17 12 34.921 -38 32 39.25           ~ 2 0
88 2MASS J17123505-3815530 * 17 12 35.0513844120 -38 15 53.120042244           ~ 1 0
89 2MASS J17123531-3811593 * 17 12 35.2998492504 -38 11 59.415344196           ~ 1 0
90 2MASS J17123566-3841270 * 17 12 35.6560721736 -38 41 27.054861324           ~ 1 0
91 2MASS J17123637-3836551 Y*O 17 12 36.375 -38 36 55.12           ~ 2 0
92 2MASS J17123917-3821224 Y*O 17 12 39.176 -38 21 22.49           ~ 5 0
93 2MASS J17124017-3820310 Y*O 17 12 40.1765354016 -38 20 31.080933240           ~ 5 0
94 2MASS J17124082-3827295 Y*O 17 12 40.8301254072 -38 27 29.578567788           ~ 4 0
95 2MASS J17124110-3827171 Y*O 17 12 41.1105490464 -38 27 17.171019864           ~ 5 0
96 2MASS J17124216-3826578 Y*O 17 12 42.166 -38 26 57.87           ~ 4 0
97 [DZS2009] 105 Y*O 17 12 42.2388 -38 20 07.644           ~ 3 0
98 SSTGLMC G348.3624+00.4728 Y*O 17 12 43.4546 -38 22 24.905           ~ 3 0
99 [DZS2009] 88 Y*O 17 12 43.5425 -38 23 24.684           ~ 3 0
100 [DZS2009] Condensation 3 IR 17 12 43.8 -38 29 42           ~ 3 0
101 2MASS J17124464-3842228 * 17 12 44.6603480016 -38 42 22.742736660           ~ 1 0
102 SSTGLMC G348.1259+00.2948 Y*O 17 12 44.926 -38 40 10.06           ~ 2 0
103 2MASS J17124603-3825247 Y*O 17 12 46.034 -38 25 24.72           ~ 6 0
104 [DZS2009] 101 Y*O 17 12 46.1426 -38 20 53.265           ~ 2 0
105 2MASS J17124775-3821590 Y*O 17 12 47.760 -38 21 59.07           ~ 1 0
106 2MASS J17124876-3841204 Y*O 17 12 48.769 -38 41 20.44           ~ 1 0
107 2MASS J17124927-3826227 * 17 12 49.276 -38 26 22.74           ~ 1 0
108 2MASS J17125226-3838385 * 17 12 52.2553941504 -38 38 38.574765816           ~ 1 0
109 V* V615 Sco AB* 17 12 52.3000437696 -38 17 23.728506648           O-rich 5 0
110 [DZS2009] 16 IR 17 12 53.9063 -38 38 15.003           ~ 1 0
111 2MASS J17125425-3831012 * 17 12 54.255 -38 31 01.25           ~ 1 0
112 2MASS J17125458-3829088 Y*O 17 12 54.5739771360 -38 29 08.932592112           ~ 1 0
113 2MASS J17125471-3838348 * 17 12 54.719 -38 38 34.89           ~ 1 0
114 2MASS J17125539-3822475 * 17 12 55.393 -38 22 47.54           ~ 1 0
115 2MASS J17125567-3825067 * 17 12 55.679 -38 25 06.76           ~ 1 0
116 2MASS J17125576-3819416 * 17 12 55.767 -38 19 41.61           ~ 1 0
117 2MASS J17125583-3813426 * 17 12 55.8219398160 -38 13 42.753703908           ~ 1 0
118 TYC 7870-695-1 * 17 12 57.1773114000 -38 25 28.220575800   12.54 11.50     ~ 2 0
119 2MASS J17125718-3835495 * 17 12 57.187 -38 35 49.59           ~ 1 0
120 2MASS J17125767-3821318 Y*O 17 12 57.670 -38 21 31.83           ~ 1 0
121 2MASS J17125832-3838393 * 17 12 58.323 -38 38 39.35           ~ 1 0
122 2MASS J17125926-3822295 * 17 12 59.2640001192 -38 22 29.568819972           ~ 1 0
123 2MASS J17125952-3824515 * 17 12 59.5185984912 -38 24 51.586530804           ~ 1 0
124 2MASS J17125984-3831136 * 17 12 59.841 -38 31 13.61           ~ 1 0
125 2MASS J17130657-3815156 * 17 13 06.5684899440 -38 15 15.677027604           ~ 1 0
126 2MASS J17130665-3836398 * 17 13 06.655 -38 36 39.85           ~ 1 0
127 2MASS J17130763-3829585 Y*O 17 13 07.633 -38 29 58.57           ~ 1 0
128 2MASS J17130786-3828185 Y*O 17 13 07.864 -38 28 18.50           ~ 1 0
129 2MASS J17130803-3821199 * 17 13 08.0276934456 -38 21 19.997135856           ~ 1 0
130 2MASS J17131187-3817071 Y*O 17 13 11.875 -38 17 07.20           ~ 1 0
131 2MASS J17131326-3823312 * 17 13 13.2552042696 -38 23 31.352507916           ~ 1 0
132 IRAS 17097-3820 * 17 13 13.3245851160 -38 24 17.638216992           ~ 1 0
133 IRAS 17098-3812 AB* 17 13 13.6861809768 -38 16 18.468880284           O-rich 4 0
134 2MASS J17131395-3818172 * 17 13 13.9626339456 -38 18 17.141645736           ~ 1 0
135 2MASS J17131590-3828409 Y*O 17 13 15.906 -38 28 40.95           ~ 1 0
136 2MASS J17131638-3812596 Y*O 17 13 16.3819792728 -38 12 59.599980432           ~ 1 0
137 2MASS J17131711-3817350 Y*O 17 13 17.117 -38 17 35.00           ~ 3 0
138 2MASS J17131779-3820090 Y*O 17 13 17.800 -38 20 09.07           ~ 1 0
139 2MASS J17132108-3814235 * 17 13 21.0753819960 -38 14 23.540248536           ~ 1 0
140 2MASS J17132116-3815141 * 17 13 21.1662410328 -38 15 14.208419952           ~ 1 0
141 2MASS J17132162-3825313 * 17 13 21.622 -38 25 31.36           ~ 1 0
142 2MASS J17132355-3821281 * 17 13 23.552 -38 21 28.12           ~ 1 0
143 2MASS J17132429-3827245 * 17 13 24.296 -38 27 24.52           ~ 1 0
144 2MASS J17132455-3833339 Y*O 17 13 24.559 -38 33 34.00           ~ 1 0
145 2MASS J17132809-3824464 * 17 13 28.093 -38 24 46.44           ~ 1 0
146 2MASS J17132977-3819162 * 17 13 29.7619407336 -38 19 16.237668072           ~ 1 0
147 2MASS J17133000-3816380 Y*O 17 13 29.9964419040 -38 16 37.977120624           ~ 1 0
148 2MASS J17133442-3814586 Y*O 17 13 34.3920168984 -38 14 58.787692944           ~ 1 0
149 NAME Galactic Center reg 17 45 39.60213 -29 00 22.0000           ~ 12903 0
150 M 16 OpC 18 18 45 -13 47.5   6.58 6.0     ~ 983 2
151 NAME Galactic Bulge reg ~ ~           ~ 3845 0

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2022.05.20-23:49:26

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