2009A&A...497..789U


C.D.S. - SIMBAD4 rel 1.7 - 2020.07.16CEST15:51:14

2009A&A...497..789U - Astronomy and Astrophysics, volume 497, 789-804 (2009/4-3)

Observational study of sites of triggered star formation. CO and mid-infrared observations.

URQUHART J.S., MORGAN L.K. and THOMPSON M.A.

Abstract (from CDS):

Bright-rimmed clouds (BRCs) are isolated molecular clouds located on the edges of evolved HII regions. Star formation within these clouds may have been triggered through the propagation of photoionisation-induced shocks driven by the expansion of the HII region. The main focus of this paper is to investigate the current level of star formation within a sample of southern hemisphere BRCs and evaluate to what extent, if any, star formation may have been triggered. In this paper we present the results of a programme of position-switched CO observations towards 45 southern BRCs. The 12CO, 13CO and C18O J=1-0 rotational transitions were simultaneously observed using the 22-m Mopra telescope. We complement these observations with archival mid-infrared data obtained from the MSX and Spitzer, as well as submillimetre and radio data previously reported in the literature. Combining all of the available data with the observations presented here allows us to build up a comprehensive picture of the current level of star formation activity within a significant number of BRCs. Analysis of the CO, mid-infrared and radio data result in the clouds being divided into three distinct groups: a) clouds that appear to be relatively unaffected by the photoionisation from the nearby OB star(s); b) clouds that show evidence of significant interaction between the molecular material and the HII regions; c) clouds towards which no CO emission is detected, but are associated with strong ionisation fronts; these are thought to be examples of clouds undergoing an ionisation flash. We refer to these groups as spontaneous, triggered, and zapped clouds, respectively. Comparing the physical parameters of spontaneous and triggered samples we find striking differences in luminosity, surface temperature and column density with all three quantities significantly enhanced for the clouds considered to have been triggered. Furthermore, we find strong evidence for star formation within the triggered sample by way of methanol and H2O masers, embedded mid-infrared point sources and CO wings, however, we find evidence of ongoing star formation within only two of the spontaneous sample. We have used CO, mid-infrared and radio data to identify 24 of the 45 southern BRCs that are undergoing a strong interaction with their HII region. We can therefore exclude the other 21 sources (∼50%) from future studies of triggered star formation. Fourteen of the 24 interacting BRCs are found to be associated with embedded mid-infrared point sources and we find strong evidence that these clouds are forming stars. The absence of mid-infrared sources towards the remaining ten clouds and the lack of any other evidence of star formation within these clouds leads us to conclude that these represent an earlier evolutionary stage of star formation.

Abstract Copyright:

Journal keyword(s): stars: formation - ISM: clouds - stars: early-type - stars: pre-main sequence

CDS comments: Table 1 BBW 347 is Bran 347 in Simbad.

Simbad objects: 145

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Number of rows : 145

N Identifier Otype ICRS (J2000)
RA
ICRS (J2000)
DEC
Mag U Mag B Mag V Mag R Mag I Sp type #ref
1850 - 2020
#notes
1 NAME Orion-KL SFR 05 35 14.16 -05 22 21.5           ~ 2001 1
2 IRAS 07162-2200 FIR 07 18 23.7 -22 06 13           ~ 4 0
3 SFO 45 Cld 07 18 23.7 -22 06 13           ~ 6 1
4 BRAN 16 HII 07 19 07.4 -21 56 17           ~ 14 1
5 SFO 46 Cld 07 19 25.8 -44 35 01           ~ 5 1
6 IRAS 07178-4429 mul 07 19 25.8 -44 35 01           ~ 17 0
7 HD 57236 * 07 19 30.1023461594 -22 00 17.278368696 8.21 8.90 8.80 9.41   O8.5V 52 1
8 TYC 5987-2050-1 * 07 30 01.2702452720 -19 08 34.867862457 11.5 11.97 11.34 11.15   O6.5V((f))z 16 1
9 TYC 5987-2554-1 * 07 30 35.2789046565 -19 06 22.163965995 11.22 11.78 11.16 11.01   O9 18 1
10 LBN 1050 HII 07 31 02.4 -19 09 17           ~ 23 1
11 SS73 6 Be* 07 31 48.851 -19 27 33.52   13.56 12.94 13.05 12.18 Be 38 2
12 MSX6C G234.7617-00.2766 Cld 07 31 48.9 -19 27 33           ~ 6 1
13 IRAS 07329-4647 Y*? 07 34 25.5780801976 -46 54 10.600208322         16.58 ~ 6 0
14 ALS 17537 * 07 35 34.1 -18 45 38 12.8 13.26 12.47     B0V 6 1
15 SH 2-307 HII 07 35 34.17 -18 45 35.0           ~ 58 2
16 IRAS 07334-1842 IR 07 35 39.09720 -18 48 50.5656           ~ 14 0
17 MSX6C G234.6358+00.8281 HII 07 35 40.9 -18 48 59           ~ 10 1
18 SFO 50 Cld 07 40 28.5 -43 06 20           ~ 4 0
19 IRAS 07388-4259 FIR 07 40 28.5 -43 06 20           ~ 4 0
20 NAME GUM Nebula ISM 07 43 -42.1           ~ 388 1
21 * zet Pup BY* 08 03 35.04754 -40 00 11.3321 0.89 1.98 2.25 2.36 2.58 O4I(n)fp 1092 1
22 * gam02 Vel WR* 08 09 31.95013 -47 20 11.7108 0.64 1.58 1.83 1.85 2.00 WC8+O7.5III-V 840 0
23 MSX6C G253.2934-01.6114 Cld 08 09 32.8 -36 05 00           ~ 10 0
24 CG 30 CGb 08 09 32.8 -36 05 00           ~ 120 0
25 2MASS J08254384-5100326 Y*O 08 25 43.85 -51 00 32.7           ~ 298 1
26 SFO 52 Cld 08 25 43.9 -51 00 37           ~ 4 0
27 SFO 53 Cld 08 26 31.7 -50 40 30           ~ 4 0
28 IRAS 08250-5030 FIR 08 26 31.7 -50 40 30           ~ 10 0
29 IRAS 08337-4028 IR 08 35 31.00392 -40 38 24.8604           ~ 20 0
30 2MASS J08353144-4040190 Y*? 08 35 31.4362112795 -40 40 19.158222465 10.07 10.43 9.90 10.03 9.54 B1V 33 1
31 SFO 54 Cld 08 35 31.7 -40 38 28           ~ 6 1
32 NGC 2626 RNe 08 35 32 -40 40.3           ~ 31 2
33 BRAN 166 HII 08 38 08.0 -40 17 53           ~ 27 1
34 HD 73882 EB* 08 39 09.53412 -40 25 09.2608 7.07 7.59 7.19 6.67 6.30 O8.5IV 219 2
35 MSX6C G260.7658+00.6604 Cld 08 41 13.0 -40 52 03           ~ 7 1
36 IRAS 08393-4041 IR 08 41 14.76216 -40 52 11.0784           ~ 15 1
37 SFO 56 Cld 08 42 59.5 -39 59 56           ~ 6 1
38 IRAS 08411-3949 IR 08 42 59.5 -39 59 56           ~ 4 0
39 GUM 15 HII 08 43 52.5 -41 14 39           ~ 31 2
40 IRAS 08423-4105 IR 08 44 07.159 -41 16 21.23           ~ 4 0
41 SFO 57 Cld 08 44 07.7 -41 16 14           ~ 7 1
42 HD 74804 Y*? 08 44 40.3241311249 -41 16 37.968841575 7.13 9.26 8.84 8.31 9.41 B3/5II 54 1
43 SFO 58 Cld 08 45 25.4 -41 16 02           ~ 9 1
44 IRAS 08435-4105 IR 08 45 25.4 -41 16 02           ~ 8 0
45 IRAS 08563-4711 HII 08 58 04.2 -47 22 57           ~ 24 2
46 VdBH 26 RNe 08 58 04.3 -47 22 46 15.52 15.41 14.20     ~ 22 1
47 RCW 38 SFR 08 59 05.50 -47 30 39.4           ~ 268 2
48 [FP74] RCW 38 IRS 2 Y*? 08 59 05.651 -47 30 40.89       14.05 11.20 O5.5V 18 1
49 IRAS 08583-4719 IR 09 00 00.90432 -47 31 48.2664           ~ 6 0
50 MSX6C G268.0574-00.9515 Cld 09 00 01.2 -47 31 37           ~ 5 1
51 SFO 61 Cld 11 00 13.5 -59 36 09           ~ 6 1
52 IRAS 10581-5920 IR 11 00 13.5 -59 36 09           ~ 4 0
53 SFO 62 Cld 11 01 15.8 -59 51 01           ~ 8 0
54 IRAS 10591-5934 IR 11 01 15.8 -59 51 01           ~ 12 1
55 NGC 3503 RNe 11 01 15.9 -59 50 39           ~ 19 1
56 CD-59 3483 *iN 11 01 17.803 -59 50 30.27 9.99 10.67 10.46   9.99 B0V 10 1
57 IRAS 11012-5931 FIR 11 03 18.8 -59 48 01           ~ 4 0
58 SFO 63 Cld 11 03 18.8 -59 48 01           ~ 6 0
59 HD 305938 SB* 11 04 25.6698066156 -59 45 32.899039159 8.83 9.53 9.40 9.81   B1:V 16 1
60 BRAN 347 HII 11 11 59.8 -58 47 47           ~ 12 1
61 HD 97471 * 11 12 07.0080531634 -58 48 14.471918052 8.42 9.55 9.30 9.77   OB- 52 2
62 IRAS 11101-5829 HII 11 12 18.0 -58 46 20           ~ 21 0
63 MSX6C G290.3745+01.6615 Cld 11 12 18.0 -58 46 20           ~ 7 1
64 MSX6C G294.2815-01.9124 Cld 11 32 55.3 -63 27 59           ~ 5 0
65 IRAS 11306-6311 IR 11 33 00.1277393829 -63 27 21.762218113           ~ 13 0
66 IRAS 11315-6259 IR 11 33 49.5 -63 16 20           ~ 5 0
67 SFO 66 Cld 11 33 49.5 -63 16 20           ~ 6 0
68 SFO 67 Cld 11 34 00.7 -63 11 19           ~ 5 0
69 IRAS 11317-6254 IR 11 34 00.7 -63 11 19           ~ 4 0
70 SFO 68 Cld 11 35 31.9 -63 14 51           ~ 7 0
71 MSX6C G294.5117-01.6205 IR 11 35 32.4 -63 14 41           ~ 2 0
72 GAL 294.51-01.62 HII 11 35 33.9 -63 14 49           ~ 24 0
73 V* V1051 Cen Al* 11 37 48.4339787468 -63 19 23.517391104 6.28 7.18 7.16 8.11   O5.5V((f))+O8:V 131 1
74 HD 101205 bL* 11 38 20.36114 -63 22 21.8889 5.64 6.51 6.47 7.41   B7/8Ib 142 2
75 GUM 42 HII 11 38 20.4 -63 22 22           ~ 34 1
76 HD 101436 * 11 39 49.9551036486 -63 28 43.541077482 6.8 8.98 8.93 8.78   O6.5V((f)) 125 1
77 IRAS 11388-6306 IR 11 41 11.2 -63 23 13           ~ 4 0
78 MSX6C G295.1622-01.5825 Cld 11 41 11.2 -63 23 13           ~ 5 0
79 IRAS 11398-6251 IR 11 42 11.2 -63 07 50           ~ 5 0
80 SFO 70 Cld 11 42 11.2 -63 07 50           ~ 5 0
81 NAME Cen R1 As* 13 08 -63.0           ~ 11 1
82 IRAS 13050-6154 of? 13 08 12.15432 -62 10 22.8000           ~ 11 1
83 BRAN 400B RNe 13 08 45.4 -62 17 30           ~ 10 0
84 HD 115455 SB* 13 18 35.3590484575 -62 29 28.403709769 7.40 8.17 7.97 8.81   O8III((f)) 94 1
85 IRAS 13158-6217 Cld 13 19 10.9 -62 33 57           ~ 11 1
86 GUM 48a HII 13 19 46 -62 30.7           ~ 29 1
87 THA 17-35 Ae* 13 20 03.5819091148 -62 23 54.054916633 13.85 13.93 13.46     B8Ve 24 0
88 SFO 73 Cld 13 20 05.7 -62 24 03           ~ 6 1
89 HD 124314 ** 14 15 01.60615 -61 42 24.3831   8.96 6.64 6.45 6.31 O6V(n)((f)) 133 1
90 IRAS 14159-6111 HII 14 19 42.1 -61 25 17           ~ 10 1
91 MSX6C G313.2850-00.3350 Cld 14 19 42.1 -61 25 17           ~ 12 1
92 RCW 85 HII 14 20.7 -61 24           ~ 15 1
93 RCW 98 HII 15 55.4 -54 39           ~ 15 1
94 CPD-54 6791 ** 15 55 39.60148 -54 38 36.6363 10.51 10.95 10.41 10.37 8.94 O9.5V 37 2
95 MSX6C G327.5761-00.8497 Cld 15 55 50.4 -54 38 58           ~ 13 1
96 IRAS 15519-5430 IR 15 55 50.4664546632 -54 38 59.657468968           ~ 13 0
97 GUM 51 HII 16 10.0 -49 08           ~ 21 1
98 HD 144918 * 16 10 29.1584 -49 02 47.091 10.4 10.73 9.96 9.96   O5/7 37 1
99 SFO 76 Cld 16 10 38.6 -49 05 52           ~ 9 1
100 IRAS 16069-4858 HII 16 10 38.698 -49 05 59.10           ~ 12 0
101 MSX6C G332.9565+01.8035 IR 16 10 38.7 -49 05 52           ~ 2 0
102 SFO 77 Cld 16 19 53.9 -25 33 39           ~ 7 0
103 IRAS 16168-2526 IR 16 19 54.7 -25 33 32   15.2 14.14     ~ 7 0
104 IRAS 16178-2501 * 16 20 50.6 -25 07 59   18.0 13.54     M 7 0
105 SFO 78 Cld 16 20 52.9 -25 08 07           ~ 7 0
106 * sig Sco bC* 16 21 11.3157134 -25 35 34.051476 2.32 3.02 2.89 1.69 1.58 O9.5(V)+B7(V) 823 0
107 ** H 121 ** 16 21 11.32 -25 35 33.9           ~ 8 0
108 GUM 53 HII 16 40 00.1 -48 51 45           ~ 88 1
109 2MASS J16400012-4851404 Y*O 16 40 00.1259054084 -48 51 40.395041833           O 7 0
110 IRAS 16362-4845 MoC 16 40 00.1 -48 51 45           ~ 16 2
111 IRAS 16365-4836 IR 16 40 16.8 -48 42 24           ~ 5 0
112 MSX6C G336.6568-01.4099 Cld 16 40 16.8 -48 42 24           ~ 7 0
113 IRAS 16373-4911 FIR 16 41 08.8 -49 17 45           ~ 4 0
114 SFO 81 Cld 16 41 08.8 -49 17 45           ~ 5 0
115 HD 150135 * 16 41 19.4437431640 -48 45 47.570366793 6.19 7.00 6.88 7.33   O6.5V((f))z 106 0
116 HD 150136 SB* 16 41 20.4156742370 -48 45 46.728092318 4.98 5.78 5.65 6.93   O3.5-4III(f*)+O6IV 171 0
117 MSX6C G343.0500+02.6094 Cld 16 46 50.2 -41 13 54           ~ 7 0
118 IRAS 16438-4110 IR 16 47 21.5 -41 15 45           ~ 7 0
119 IRAS 16487-4043 IR 16 52 12.0 -40 48 09           ~ 4 0
120 SFO 83 Cld 16 52 12.0 -40 48 09           ~ 5 0
121 GUM 55 HII 16 53 -42.2           ~ 25 0
122 IRAS 16502-4002 IR 16 53 45.1 -40 07 22           ~ 4 0
123 SFO 84 Cld 16 53 45.1 -40 07 22           ~ 5 0
124 HD 326286 * 16 53 49.2828195259 -41 03 49.202066248   10.58 10.44     B0 10 0
125 HD 152245 * 16 54 00.4795665238 -40 31 58.153117466 7.71 8.49 8.37     B0Ib 51 0
126 HD 152233 SB* 16 54 03.5915443398 -41 47 29.834880322 5.93 6.72 6.59     O6II(f) 177 0
127 MSX6C G343.3516-00.0786 RNe 16 59 06.4 -42 42 04   13       ~ 13 0
128 CD-42 11721 Be* 16 59 06.7622892572 -42 42 08.404916931 12.16 12.28 11.00     B0IVe 155 1
129 GAL 345.2+01.0 HII 16 59 40 -40 11.4           ~ 25 0
130 NAME Gal Center reg 17 45 40.04 -29 00 28.1           ~ 11552 0
131 HD 161853 ** 17 49 16.5580430858 -31 15 18.070335520 7.48 8.11 7.97 8.81   O8V(n)z+B 71 2
132 LMH 8 HII 17 49.3 -31 15           ~ 15 1
133 SFO 86 Cld 17 49 36.1 -31 29 13           ~ 5 1
134 IRAS 17463-3128 IR 17 49 36.1 -31 29 13           ~ 11 0
135 V* V1749 Sgr Or* 18 02 51.57240 -24 22 08.2056           ~ 5 0
136 IRAS 17597-2422 Cld 18 02 51.6 -24 22 08           ~ 7 0
137 M 8 HII 18 03 37 -24 23.2           ~ 552 1
138 * 9 Sgr Em* 18 03 52.4455370104 -24 21 38.639393923 5.08 5.97 5.97 5.72 5.70 O4V((f))z 517 0
139 IRAS 18012-2407 FIR 18 04 16.8 -24 06 59           ~ 5 0
140 SFO 88 Cld 18 04 16.8 -24 06 59           ~ 5 0
141 * 11 Sgr Or* 18 09 17.7002679002 -23 59 18.232366605 6.65 7.45 7.31 8.36   O7V(n)z+B0:V: 125 2
142 SFO 89 Cld 18 09 54.3 -24 04 56           ~ 9 1
143 IRAS 18068-2405 IR 18 09 54.3 -24 04 56           ~ 6 0
144 LBN 29 HII 18 10.6 -23 59           ~ 20 1
145 NAME M 17 SW SFR 18 20 23.1 -16 11 43           ~ 249 0

    Equat.    Gal    SGal    Ecl

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2020.07.16-15:51:14

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