2009A&A...499..149V


C.D.S. - SIMBAD4 rel 1.7 - 2020.11.28CET01:30:19

2009A&A...499..149V - Astronomy and Astrophysics, volume 499, 149-161 (2009/5-3)

Physical properties of southern infrared dark clouds.

VASYUNINA T., LINZ H., HENNING T., STECKLUM B., KLOSE S. and NYMAN L.-A.

Abstract (from CDS):

What are the mechanisms by which massive stars form? What are the initial conditions for these processes? It is commonly assumed that cold and dense Infrared Dark Clouds (IRDCs) represent the birth-sites of massive stars. Therefore, these clouds have been receiving an increasing amount of attention, and their analysis offers the opportunity to tackle the afore mentioned questions. To enlarge the sample of well-characterised IRDCs in the southern hemisphere, where ALMA will play a major role in the near future, we have developed a program to study the gas and dust of southern infrared dark clouds. The present paper attempts to characterize the continuum properties of this sample of IRDCs. We cross-correlated 1.2mm continuum data from SIMBA bolometer array mounted on SEST telescope with Spitzer/GLIMPSE images to establish the connection between emission sources at millimeter wavelengths and the IRDCs that we observe at 8µm in absorption against the bright PAH background. Analysing the dust emission and extinction enables us to determine the masses and column densities, which are important quantities in characterizing the initial conditions of massive star formation. We also evaluated the limitations of the emission and extinction methods. The morphology of the 1.2mm continuum emission is in all cases in close agreement with the mid-infrared extinction. The total masses of the IRDCs were found to range from 150 to 1150M (emission data) and from 300 to 1750M (extinction data). We derived peak column densities of between 0.9 and 4.6x1022cm–2 (emission data) and 2.1 and 5.4x1022cm–2 (extinction data). We demonstrate that the extinction method is unreliable at very high extinction values (and column densities) beyond AV values of roughly 75mag according to the Weingartner & Draine (2001ApJ...548..296W) extinction relation RV=5.5 model B (around 200mag when following the common Mathis (1990ARA&A..28...37M) extinction calibration). By taking the spatial resolution effects into account and restoring the column densities derived from the dust emission to a linear resolution of 0.01 pc, peak column densities of 3-19x1023cm–2 are obtained, which are much higher than typical values for low-mass cores. Taking into account the spatial resolution effects, the derived column densities are beyond the column density threshold of 3.0x1023cm–2 required by theoretical considerations for massive star formation. We conclude that the values of column densities derived for the selected IRDC sample imply that these objects are excellent candidates for objects in the earliest stages of massive star formation.

Abstract Copyright:

Journal keyword(s): ISM: dust, extinction - ISM: clouds - infrared: ISM - radio continuum: ISM - stars: formation

VizieR on-line data: <Available at CDS (J/A+A/499/149): list.dat map3/*>

Nomenclature: Table 3: [VLH2009] LLL.ll+B.bb N=12.

CDS comments: Fig.3, Table 3: Substructures P1-P3 are not in Simbad.

Simbad objects: 18

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Number of rows : 18

N Identifier Otype ICRS (J2000)
RA
ICRS (J2000)
DEC
Mag U Mag B Mag V Mag R Mag I Sp type #ref
1850 - 2021
#notes
1 NAME Perseus Cloud SFR 03 35.0 +31 13           ~ 1093 0
2 NAME Taurus Complex SFR 04 41.0 +25 52           ~ 3575 0
3 [VLH2009] 308.12-0.33 DNe 13 37 01.2 -62 44 40           ~ 2 0
4 SDC G309.129-0.144 DNe 13 45 16.46 -62 21 58.8           ~ 5 0
5 [VLH2009] 309.34-0.64 DNe 13 48 39.8 -62 47 26           ~ 2 0
6 [VLH2009] 310.39-0.28 DNe 13 56 01.7 -62 14 27           ~ 2 0
7 [VLH2009] 312.33-0.07 DNe 14 11 56.8 -61 29 25           ~ 2 0
8 [VLH2009] 313.72-0.29 DNe 14 26 05.4 -61 14 48           ~ 2 0
9 [VLH2009] 316.45-0.66 DNe 14 44 50.4 -60 30 54           ~ 2 0
10 [VLH2009] 317.71+0.11 DNe 14 51 07.5 -59 16 11           ~ 2 0
11 [VLH2009] 318.13-0.34 DNe 14 55 58.4 -59 28 31           ~ 2 0
12 [VLH2009] 320.23+0.32 DNe 15 07 56.7 -57 54 27           ~ 3 0
13 [VLH2009] 321.71+0.07 DNe 15 18 26.7 -57 21 56           ~ 4 0
14 NAME Ophiuchus D MoC 16 28 29.2 -24 18 25           ~ 105 0
15 [CCE98b] 011.11-0.12 Cld 18 10.5 -19 23           ~ 85 1
16 [VLH2009] 13.84-0.49 DNe 18 17 21.2 -17 09 23           ~ 2 0
17 NAME IRDC 18223-3 Y*O 18 25 08.4002 -12 45 15.466           ~ 62 0
18 NAME Centaurus Arm PoG ~ ~           ~ 74 0

    Equat.    Gal    SGal    Ecl

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2020.11.28-01:30:19

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