2009A&A...502..499R


C.D.S. - SIMBAD4 rel 1.7 - 2021.03.04CET11:53:01

2009A&A...502..499R - Astronomy and Astrophysics, volume 502, 499-504 (2009/8-1)

The classification of flaring states of blazars.

RESCONI E., FRANCO D., GROSS A., COSTAMANTE L. and FLACCOMIO E.

Abstract (from CDS):

The time evolution of the electromagnetic emission from blazars, in particular high-frequency peaked sources (HBLs), displays irregular activity that has not yet been understood. In this work we report a methodology capable of characterizing the time behavior of these variable objects. The maximum likelihood blocks (MLBs) is a model-independent estimator that subdivides the light curve into time blocks, whose length and amplitude are compatible with states of constant emission rate of the observed source. The MLBs yield the statistical significance in the rate variations and strongly suppresses the noise fluctuations in the light curves. We applied the MLBs for the first time on the long term X-ray light curves (RXTE/ASM) of Mkn 421, Mkn 501, 1ES 1959+650, and 1ES 2155-304, more than 10 years of observational data (1996-2007). Using the MLBs interpretation of RXTE/ASM data, the integrated time flux distribution is determined for each single source considered. We identify in these distributions the characteristic level, as well as the flaring states of the blazars. All the distributions show a significant component at negative flux values, most probably caused by an uncertainty in the background subtraction and by intrinsic fluctuations of RXTE/ASM. This effect concerns in particular short time observations. To quantify the probability that the intrinsic fluctuations give rise to a false identification of a flare, we study a population of very faint sources and their integrated time-flux distribution. We determine duty cycle or fraction of time a source spent in the flaring state of the source Mkn 421, Mkn 501, 1ES 1959+650 and 1ES 2155-304. Moreover, we study the random coincidences between flares and generic sporadic events such as high-energy neutrinos or flares in other wavelengths.

Abstract Copyright:

Journal keyword(s): galaxies: BL Lacertae objects: general - X-rays: bursts - X-rays: general

Simbad objects: 13

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Number of rows : 13

N Identifier Otype ICRS (J2000)
RA
ICRS (J2000)
DEC
Mag U Mag B Mag V Mag R Mag I Sp type #ref
1850 - 2021
#notes
1 QSO B0118-272 BLL 01 20 31.6632705443 -27 01 24.643168036   15.89 15.56 15.49   ~ 247 1
2 QSO B0235+1624 BLL 02 38 38.93010 +16 36 59.2746   16.46 15.50 15.92   ~ 1412 2
3 QSO B0454+844 BLL 05 08 42.36345199 +84 32 04.5440155     16.5 18.95   ~ 233 1
4 M 1 SNR 05 34 31.94 +22 00 52.2           ~ 5704 4
5 NAME Orion Nebula Cluster OpC 05 35.0 -05 29           ~ 2039 1
6 QSO J0738+1742 BLL 07 38 07.39374766 +17 42 18.9982302   16.76 16.22 15.78   ~ 905 1
7 QSO B0829+047 BLL 08 31 48.8771360822 +04 29 39.086736269   17.10 16.4 14.55   ~ 428 2
8 6C 095456+654857 BLL 09 58 47.2452838930 +65 33 54.821524491     17.0 15.75   ~ 629 1
9 Mrk 421 BLL 11 04 27.3139210166 +38 12 31.798324828   13.50 12.90 8.31   ~ 2427 1
10 7C 1147+2434 BLL 11 50 19.2119754161 +24 17 53.834754764   16.26 15.74 15.80   ~ 253 1
11 4C 39.49 BLL 16 53 52.21668494 +39 45 36.6089458 14.09 14.15 13.29 8.26   ~ 1954 2
12 QSO B1959+650 BLL 19 59 59.8525497024 +65 08 54.651170114     12.8 11.21   ~ 519 2
13 QSO B2155-304 BLL 21 58 52.0651817803 -30 13 32.120657891   13.36 13.09 12.62   ~ 1592 1

    Equat.    Gal    SGal    Ecl

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2021.03.04-11:53:01

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