Astronomy and Astrophysics, volume 503, 151-163 (2009/8-3)
Hot subdwarfs from the stable Roche lobe overflow channel.
YU S. and LI L.
Abstract (from CDS):
Hot subdwarfs are core-helium-burning stars with extremely thin envelopes. We discuss the formation and evolution of hot subdwarfs formed through the stable Roche lobe overflow (RLOF) channel of intermediate-mass binaries, although their formation channels are various. In this study, we concentrate on the formation and evolution of hot subdwarfs binaries through the stable RLOF channel of intermediate-mass binaries. We aim at setting out the properties of hot subdwarfs and their progenitors, so that we can understand the formation and evolution of hot subdwarfs. Employing Eggleton's stellar evolution code, we have computed conservative and nonconservative population I binary evolution sequences. The initial mass of the primary ranges from 2.2 to 6.3M☉, spaced by approximately 0.1 in logM, the initial mass ratio qi=M1/M2 is between 1.1 and 4.5, and the Roche lobe overflow begins at the main sequence, the Hertzsprung gap and the first giant branch. In nonconservative binary evolution, we assume that 50 percent of the mass lost from the primary leaves the system, carrying away the specific angular momentum of the primary, and the remaining mass is accreted on to the secondary during the RLOF. Also, we have studied the distributions of the mass and orbital periods of hot subdwarfs using the population synthesis approach. We have obtained the ranges of the initial parameters of progenitor binaries and the properties of hot subdwarfs through the stable RLOF channel of intermediate-mass binaries, e.g. mass, envelope mass and age of hot subdwarfs. We have found that hot subdwarfs could be formed through stable Roche lobe overflow at the main sequence and Hertzsprung gap. We have also found that some subdwarf B or OB stars have anomalously high mass (∼1M☉) with a thick envelope (∼0.07M☉-∼0.16) in our models. By comparing our theoretical results with observations on the hot subdwarfs in open clusters, we suggest that more hot subdwarfs in binary systems might be found in open clusters in the future.