C.D.S. - SIMBAD4 rel 1.7 - 2019.11.17CET17:32:32

2009A&A...503..373K - Astronomy and Astrophysics, volume 503, 373-378 (2009/8-4)

Non-Maxwellian electron distributions in clusters of galaxies.


Abstract (from CDS):

Thermal X-ray spectra of clusters of galaxies and other sources are commonly calculated assuming Maxwellian electron distributions. There are situations where this approximation is not valid, for instance near interfaces of hot and cold gas and near shocks. The presence of non-thermal electrons affects the X-ray spectrum. To study the role of these electrons in clusters and other environments, an efficient algorithm is needed to calculate the X-ray spectra. We approximate an arbitrary electron distribution by the sum of Maxwellian components. The decomposition uses either a genetic algorithm or an analytical approximation. The X-ray spectrum is then evaluated with a linear combination of those Maxwellian components. Our method is fast and leads to an accurate evaluation of the spectrum. The Maxwellian components allow the use of the standard collisional rates that are available in plasma codes such as SPEX. We give an example of a spectrum for the supra-thermal electron distribution behind a shock in a cluster of galaxies. The relative intensities of the satellite lines in such a spectrum are sensitive to supra-thermal electrons. These lines can only be investigated with high spectral resolution. We show that the instruments on future missions like Astro-H and IXO will be able to demonstrate the presence or absence of these supra-thermal electrons.

Abstract Copyright:

Journal keyword(s): acceleration of particles - radiation mechanisms: general - X-rays: galaxies: clusters - X-rays: general

Simbad objects: 1

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Number of rows : 1

N Identifier Otype ICRS (J2000)
ICRS (J2000)
Mag U Mag B Mag V Mag R Mag I Sp type #ref
1850 - 2020
1 NAME Galactic Ridge ? ~ ~           ~ 409 1

C.D.S. - SIMBAD4 rel 1.7 - 2019.11.17CET17:32:32

Available data : Basic data  •  Identifiers  •  Plot & images  •  Bibliography  •  Measurements  •  External archives  •  Notes  •  Annotations

Basic data :
NAME Galactic Ridge -- Object of unknown nature
Origin of the objects types :

(Ref) Object type as listed in the reference "Ref"
(acronym) Object type linked to the acronym according to the original reference
() Anterior to 2007, before we can link the objet type to a reference, or given by the CDS team in some particular cases

Other object types:
Syntax of coordinates is : "ra dec (wtype) [error ellipse] quality bibcode" :
  • ra dec : right ascension and declination (unit and frame defined according to your Output Options)
    Grey values are increasing the original precision due to the computation of frame transformations
  • (wtype) : wavelength class for the origin of the coordinates (Rad, mm, IR, Optical, UV, Xray, Gam)
  • [error ellipse] : measurement uncertainty, on (ra,dec) if the positional angle is 90 degrees, on (majaxis,minaxis) otherwise (in mas at defined epoch in the original catalogue),
    position angle (in degrees North celestial pole to East)
  • quality : flag of quality
    • E ≥ 10"
    • D : 1-10" (and some old data)
    • C : 0.1-1"
    • B : 0.01-0.1" + 2MASS, Tyc
    • A : VLBI, Hipparcos
  • bibcode : bibcode of the coordinates reference
ICRS coord. (ep=J2000) :
No Coord.
Some important notes on this object about identifications and objects associations.

  • The Galactic Ridge corresponds to an X-ray emission coming from a disk-like region extending over the galactic longitudes ±40°; it has been first described by Worrall et al. (1982ApJ...255..111W). This disk has a several-kpc radius from the Galactic center and a scale height of about 100 pc.

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Identifiers (1) :
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NAME Galactic Ridge

References (409 between 1850 and 2020) (Total 409)
Simbad bibliographic survey began in 1850 for stars (at least bright stars) and in 1983 for all other objects (outside the solar system).
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Observing logs

XMM : 5   


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